Graduate courses

804501 Chromosomes (2, 0, 2) 3

Morphological structures of heterochromatin and euchromatin, chromosome structure, prokaryotic and eukaryotic chromosomes, chromosome number and shape, chromosome number variations in species, telomeres, centromeres and kinetochores, nucleolar organizing regions, giant chromosomes (lampbrush and polyten), B chromosomes, supernumerary segments and polymorphism, artificial chromosomes karyotypes, chromosome banding patterns, factors in cell division, chromosome movements in mitosis and meiosis, chromosome organization within the nucleus, chromosome pairing, recombination nodules, gene conversions, polyploids. Chromosome patterns in plants and animals, cell division, Q banding, R banding, T banding, B chromosomes, giant chromosome, polyploids.

804502 Comparative Plant Anatomy (2, 0, 2) 3

Comparisons of leaf, root, stem and flower anatomy of Gymnosperms and Angiosperms, use of anatomical features in taxonomical studies, application of anatomical features into evolution.

804503 Vegetation Classification Methods (2, 2, 0) 3

Methods used in vegetation classification are explained through applications. Also this course covers how the most suitable method must be chosen according to the planned study and how the sampling can be done. Also the advantages and disadvantages of the methods are discussed.

804504 Comparative Anatomy of Invertebrated Animals (2, 0, 2) 3

In all invertebrated animal groups from protozoons to phylum Echinodermata to compare the following structures and systems in a systemically order from primitive to advanced: skin structure and related formations; movement and skeleton systems; nervous systems and sensory organelles; structures which enables digestion, circulation, excretion, respiration and reproduction.To examine on preparation or materials; skin structure; elements which constitutes skeleton; movement and sensory organelles; nervous, digestion, respiration excretion, circulation and reproduction systems of animals from phylum Protozoa to Echinodermata.

804505 Palynology (2, 0, 2) 3

General morphological features of pollen grains and spores and their application into plant systematic and evolution, ontogeny of pollen grains and spores, pollen analysis in the sediments of Quaternary, in honey and in atmosphere, construction of pollen diagrams, interpretation, contributions of palynology to criminology, plant systematic, paleobotany, pollen morphology of Gymnosperms and Angiosperms, pollen preparation techniques for modern and fossil pollen grains, pollen biochemistry and its application into medical sciences.

804506 Taxonomic Researches and Publications (2, 0, 0) 2

Scientific research and publication, problem choosing, Preparation, evaluating and kinds of scientific publication. Knowledge about copyright. Copyright releasing of papers.

804507 Vegetation Series in Turkey (3, 0, 0) 3

General knowledge about vegetation series. Vegetation series of Mediterranean region of Turkey. Explanation of beginning from the thermo Mediterranean zone, upper Mediterranean zone, mountain and upper mountain Mediterranean zone. Vegetation series of the Black Sea Region from the sea level to mountain zone.

804508 Bioclimates of Turkey (2, 2, 0) 3

Climatic characteristics of Turkey and their geographical limitation, comparison with each other, correlation with vegetation and their application types.

804509 Forest (Sylvatic) Ecosystems in Turkey (2, 0, 0) 2

Definition and general characteristics of the ecosystems. Forest ecosystems, their features and classifications. Introducing of the evergreen and decidious sylvatic species common in Türkiye. Ecologies and floristic structure, sociological and geographical characteristics of the forests combined and formed these tree species native to Türkiye and the current status of forest assets of Türkiye.

804510 The Phytoplankton Ecology (2, 2, 0) 3

Definition of Phytoplankton, Planktonic Organisms, Planktonic Algae, General Characteristics and Composition of Planktonic Algae, The structure of the Aquatic Ecosystem, Factors affecting phytoplankton, Algal Movements in Water, Seasonal Variation of Phytoplankton, Food-Chain Dynamics, The Regulation of Nutrient and Energy Flow

804511 Syntaxonomical Nomenclature (2, 2, 0) 3

The implementation of the rules, principles and recommendations for the nomenclature of syntaxa created in vegetational classification and studies. Application all the rules to the samples.

804512 Biomembranes (3, 0, 0) 3

Chemistry of cell membrane; functions of membrane proteins; active transport, intercellular recognition; cell adhesion molecules; receptors; signal molecules and their relations with messenger molecular structure and functions of intercellular membranes and their interrelations in different types of cells; their chemistry, formations and origins; intercellular membrane transition, membrane fussion; techniques to obtain membranes, aquaporins, liquid crystals.

804513 Bioclimatology and its Methods (2, 2, 0) 3

General climatic knowledge. Bioclimatic concept. Bioclimatic methods and their application to different meteorological stations of the world.

804514 Ordination Techniques for Vegetation Analyses (2, 2, 0) 3

The Braun-Blanquet approach for grouping and clustring of the quatrads, for forming of upper ranks (upper syntaxa) and for processing of raw tables was aimed to support mathematically and statistically and to increase reliability of classification by various numerical techniques. The presentation and application of three-dimensional ordination of Bray-Curtis (Wisconsin Polar Ordination) technique and the various presentations of the results obtained in various ways.

804515 Biology of the Nonvascular Plants (2, 0, 2) 3

The general morphological characteristics and the key of the species and genera of some classes and divisions such as lichens, liverworts, mosses and ferns are given by the lecturer. At the same time, applied laboratory works are carry on depending on the given knowledge.

804516 Systematics of Plant Sociology (Phytosociological systematics) (2, 0, 0) 2

Phytosociological units (syntaxa) described so far in Türkiye and in the world have been presenting with their diagnostic species, ecologies and geographical distributations.

804517 Special Vegetation Types (2, 0, 0) 2

This course covers the ecological and floristical characteristics, syntaxonomical structures, distribution areas, ecological and economical importance and the influence of environmental changes on the special vegetation types like halophytic, gypsaceous, alpine, sand dune, peat and pseudomaquis.

804518 The Collecting and Preserving Techniques of the Plant Material (2, 2, 0) 3

The lecture is given on the habitats, the collection and preservation techniques of the algae, fungi, mosses, liverworts and the higher plants.The general knowledge, field notes and the factors affecting distribution and zonation of the terrestrial environment is explained also of the plant material is given. In addition to these studies, laboratory works are done.

804519 Vasculer cambium and wood anatomy (2, 0, 2) 3

Cambium cell structure and growth peryod, cambium cell division, the origin and development of vascular rays, Abnormal cambiums, layered and non-layered cambium, period of cambial activity, seasonal changes in cambium, Factors affecting cambial activity, experimental control of cambial growth. Xylem and phloem differentiation. wood differentiation of cambium, Wood parenchyma, rays regulation of cell. Gymnosperms secondary xylem, Angiosperms secondary xylem. Ultrastructure and chemical components of cell walls, Comparative wood anatomy of the woody plants of economic value. Periderm, shells, lignin and properties. The relationship between microscopic structure and properties of wood, Dendrochronology.

804520 Steppe Vegetation in Turkey (2, 0, 0) 2

Distribution of steppe vegetation in Turkey. Origin of the steppe. Ecological and phytogeographic characteristics of the steppe vegetation. Floristic and syntaxonomical structure and classification of steppe.

804521 Evolution of Vertebrates (3, 0, 0) 3

Geological times. Importance of fossil records. Emerging periods of animals. The opinions about the origin of the vertebrates. Discussion of the Darwinian evolution in respect to vertebrate evolution. Speciation of vertebrates. Evolutionary importance of homology and analogy. Transition of vertebrates to land. Evolutionary history of fishes, amphibians, reptiles and births. Mammal-like reptiles and Mammalian characteristics. Evolution of Mammals.

804522 Biological Stains (2, 0, 2) 3

Using fields, general structure and classification of stains, applications, acid and basic dyes and chromophores, The mechanism of staining, relationship between chemical structure and chrominance, and the properties and preparations of important biological stains.

804523 Dendrology (2, 0, 2) 3

History of dendrology, leaf abscission, buds (types, arrangements and scales), shoots (characteristics and annual shoot traces), petiole scars, scars of vascular bundles, lenticels, thorn types, diagnostic features such as pith, barks, fruit types, identification keys for these characteristics.Identification keys for the winter bud of the broad leaved species. Chorology of the common trees in Türkiye.

804524 Histochemistry (2, 0, 2) 3

The preparation techniques of materials for histochemistry, carbohydrates proteins, lipids, nucleic acids, amyloids, pigments, minerals histochemistry, DNES systems, in immunohistochemistry, enzymes histochemistry, qualitative and quantitative histochemistry.

804525 Stress Physiology in Plants (2, 0, 0) 2

The terminology of stress, acclimation and resistance. Low-temperature (chilling and freezing), drought, high-temperature, salt and ion stress, oxygen deficiency and air pollution. In the stress conditions; membrane properties, injury, resistance mechanism, relationship of metabolic changes, to hardiness, hormonal control, stress proteins.

804526 Immunity of Invertebrates (2 2 0) 3

Definition and types of ımmunıty. Circulatory systems of vertebrates and invertebrates and these comparision. Structure and function of ınvertebrates haemolymph (hemolymph). Blood cells ( haemocytes, hemocytes) types and their cellular structures. Prohemocytes, plasmocytes, onocytoids, adipohemocytes, systocytes, spherule cells, granular cells and types, podocytes, vermiform cells. Other components of hemolymph: free lipid cells, wax droplets, spermatozoa, eggs. Functions of hemocytes: phagocyte, nodule formation, encapsulation, feed other cells, defense to pathogen, attend to inflammation, wound repairing and coagulation.Molecules in immunıty: antibacterial proteins, phenoloxidase systems, melanin, digesting enzymes, lectins etc.

804527 Advanced Cell Biology (3, 0, 0) 3

Integral, peripheral proteins and their function; architecture of lipid membranes; membrane organisation and cell walls in procaryotic and eukaryotic cells; molecular communications and cell signalling; bacterial photosynthetic reaction centers; transport into prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells; cell cycle regulations; NO and biological activations; Chaperons; cytoskeleton and cell movement; types of vesicule transport and their function; DNA replication and repair; transcription in prokaryotes and eukaryotes; protein transport in cytoplasm.

804528 Rodents (Rodentia: Mammalia) of Turkey (2, 0, 2) 3

The rodent species of Turkey and their diagnostic characteristics, taxonomic problems, distributions, habitats and ecological importance of the rodent species of Turkey.

804529 Principles of Systematics in animals (2, 0, 0) 2

Definition, history and important of systematically, taxonomically categories, species concept, intraspecific categories, systematic collections (collection, preparation and labeling of specimens), taxonomic characters, Scientific nomenclature of animals, kinds of variation and publications in taxonomy, the international congresses of zoology, the interpretation and application of the zoological code.

804530 Animal Footprints (1, 0, 2) 2

Identification of footprints, measurement and evaluation of footprint groups, kinds of footprint, identification of species with respect to kinds of footprint, recapturing clearing and evaluation of disgorge material, collection and conservation of footprints.

804531 Biology and Ecology of Mammals (2, 0, 0) 2

Locomotion types, orientation, feeding, conservation of body temperature reproduction, care and development of young, morphological and physiologically changes in seasonal, statistics of population, extreme life areas in mammals and ecological roles of mammals.

804532 Mineral Metabolism in Plants (2, 0, 2) 3

The elements in plant dry matter. Methods of studying plant nutrition. Essential elements, An essential element is needed for completion of the life cycle of the plant. Functions of essential elements, Chelating agent, Nutrient deficiency: Deficiency causes typical symptoms resulting from the disruption of metabolic processes in the plants and functions of essential elements.

804533 Locomotion Mechanism of Vertebrates (2, 0, 0) 2

Locomotion mechanism of fish, active and passive swimming, horizontal and vertical locomotions, speed; flying in birds, gliding, steady, soaring, hovering, landing, speed; Mammalian locomotion, walking running, jumping, flying, speed; important functional structures in vertebrate locomotions.

804534 Growth and Development Physiology (3, 0, 0) 3

The hormonal control of cell division, growth and differentiation Morphogenesis, development of root, stem, leaf, bud. Germination and dormancy, apical dominance, polarity, phytochrome, photomorphotogenesis, juvenility photoperiodism, and vernalization. Senescence and abcission. Reproductive growth and development, flowering fertilization, fruit and embryo development.

804535 The Bats of Turkey (2, 0, 0) 2

The bat species of Turkey; biological characteristics, ecological roles, economic iınportance, distribution, identification of species and taxonomical problems.

804536 Enzyme Metabolism in Plants (2, 0, 0) 2

Enzyme structure, classification of enzymes, the biosynthesis of tetrapyrole, purine, pirimidine, synthesis of compounds used as substrates for the formation of wall polymers and enzyme systems which catalyze the reaction, quantum capture and distribution in photosynthesis, quantum transfer between pigments involved glycolysis, Calvin cycle, Crassulacean acid metabolism, photorespiration and glycolate pathway, biosynthesis of monosaccharide, oligosaccharide, starch and intermediates in the synthesis of polysaccharides.

804537 Environmental Biology (3, 0, 0) 3

National parks, Nature park, Nature protection Areas, Special Areas of protected areas. issues related to the flora and fauna of environmental protection areas. within the framework of our common future sources of energy, balanced development, sustainable development, economy-ecology relationship. Overview of environmental problems in Turkey.

804538 Techniques of Electron Microscope in Biology (2 2 0) 3

Historical developing and types of electron microscopies. Preparations (washing, fixation, dehydration, embedding, drying, coating etc.) of specimens, properties of chemical molecules and solutions of these preparations and used accessories and their functions for transmission and scanning electron microscopic observation. Spesific methods of transmission and scanning electron microscopic for researching several organisms such as bacteria,viruses, fungus, mycoplasma, plants and animal. Critisms on electronmicrographs.

804539 Plant Classification Systems And Other Biological Disciplines As Tools For Plant Taxonomy (2, 0, 0) 2

Characters used in plant taxonomy which derived from such as morphological, molecular, chemical and cytotaxonomical studies are explained with their features. Scientific classification systems with their historical evolution are explained.

804540 Collection, Preparation and Conservation of Vertebrate Samples (1, 0, 2) 2

Collection, preparation and conservation of specimens belonging to pisces, Amphibia, Reptillia, Aves, and Mammalia from Vertebrate. Preparation of conservation solution for specimens of Pisces, Amphibia, and Reptilia. Skinning method for birds and Mammalia specimens. Labelling of Vertebrate specimens. Conservation methods of specimens in museum.

804541 Ecology of Benthic Algae

Classification of Benthic Zones, Epipelic, Epilithic and Epiphytic Communities, Factors affecting benthic flora.

804542 General Biological Techniques (2, 0, 2) 3

Experiment and analysis in Biology, solution and standardization, taking of material, sampling, homogenization, extraction, purification methods, chromatographic techniques, photometry, colorimetry, spectrophotometry, fluorometry, flamephotometry, atomic absorption spectrophotometry, polarimetry, ion selective potentiometry, radioisotope techniques, enzymological methods.

804543 Molecular Genetics (3, 0, 0) 3

Gene expression: replication, transcription, translation and related regulatory mechanisms; Nucleic acid-protein interactions; DNA and RNA polimerases, binding proteins, stabilizing proteins, topoisomerases; mobile elements: IS-elements and transposons; chromosomal structure and control of gene expression in Prokaryotes and in Eukaryotes.

804544 The Biology of The Algae (2, 2, 0) 3

Morphology and cytology of the algae. Culture and nutrition. Energy sources and pigments. Movement and rhythm.

804545 Eutrophication Problems in Lakes (2, 0, 0) 2

Introduction of Eutrophication, Environmental factors (Physical, Chemical, Biological) causing eutrophication ecological changes caused by eutrophication, Eutrophication problems and their control through chemical, biological and mechanical methods.

804546 Fish Population Dynamics (2, 0, 2) 3

The classification of habitats in fish populations, characteristics of fish stocks, indirect factors affecting fish stocks, abiotic and biotic environmental factors. Fish growth, bone age determination in fish, age, height and weight measurements evaluation. Length-weight relationship, age-length, age-weight relationship. Fish reproduction, sex discrimination, the degree of sexual maturity, egg productivity (fecundity), fecundity-length, weight, and age relations. Fish nutrition, dietary measurement methods, he estimated size of the fish stock, marking and recapture method, Sampling of eggs and larvae, acoustical technical, the method of screening or filtering water. The actual (current) population analysis, regulating stocks, exotic fish species, negative effects on other fish populations of exotic fish species.

804547 Zooplanktonic Organisms in Lakes (2, 0, 2) 3

Historical development of plankton, classification of plankton, plankton collection, identification and quantification. The importance of zooplankton, zooplanktonic general characteristics of organisms, systematics, Freshwaters of the principal groups of zooplankton Rotifera, Cladocera, Copepoda. Other zooplanktonic larvae zooplankton ecology, zooplankton organisms as indicators, abiotic and biotic factors which affect zooplankton, density and biomass of zooplankton, productivity, indirectly (indirect) methods, directly (direct) methods, zooplankton cultures, preparation of culture medium, the culture conditions, culture techniques, Rotifera culture, Artemia culture, Daphnia culture.

804548 The Methods in Hydrobiology (2, 0, 2) 3

Limnological (Biological, and physio-chemical) parameters of lakes, sample collection and specimen identification, Data analysis.

804549 Methods for Measuring Primary Production and Biomass of Phytoplankton (2, 0, 2) 3

Sampling techniques and methods for estimating quantity and quality of biomass; techniques for sampling water and phytoplankton, counting, expression of population, chemical components photosynthetic pigments. Methods for measuring production rates; 0xygen determination, C02 system analyses and 14C tracer techniques.

804550 Herbarium and Botanical Gardens (2, 0, 0) 2

The importance, history and aims of the herbaria, and their contributions to the science are explained with the examples from Türkiye and the world. The establishment and development, aims and importance of botanical gardens and their contributions to science are discussed and some important examples from Türkiye and the world are given.

804551 Advance Techniques in Molecular Biology (2, 2, 0) 3

Gel electrophoresis (protein and nucleic acid electrophoresis), protein purification and chromotographic techniques used in protein purification, ultracentrifugation techniques, DNA purification, recombinant DNA technology, DNA sequence analysis, autoradiography and hybridoma

804552 Origin of Flowering Plants (2, 0, 0) 2

After explaining the characteristics of plant groups from which flowering plants would be generated, the available data and research methods used in investigating the origin of flowering plants is discussed. Theories about the origin of flowering plants and phylogenetic relationships of existing flowering plants are discussed in the light of the available data.

804553 Techniques of Photomicrogrophy and Microscopical Drawing (1, 0, 2) 2

Introduction to microscopy, microscopic drawing apparatus, microscopic drawing rules, drawing and measurements, microscope-camera systems, light sources for photomicrography, filters, black and white films and uses. color films and uses, illuminating for color photomicrography, filters, process and printing in black and white films.

804554 Gene Engineering (3, 0, 0) 3

Restriction-modification system in bacteria, cloning strategies in bacteria as well as in eucaryotes, vectors used in cloning (plasmids, bacteriophages, cosmids), importance of expression vectors, selection of recombinants, sequencing of cloned gene, construction of gene banks, importance of gene engineering.

804555 The Plant Growth Hormones (3, 0, 0) 3

Hormones and growth regulators: Auxins, Gibberellins, Cytokinins, Ethylene, Abscisic Acid and other compounds. Receptors of hormones. Chemistry, metabolism, inactivation and translocation of hormones. Hormones levels are controlled by the rates of synthesis and degradation. Physiological effects of hormones.

804556 Gene Manipulations in Biotechnology (3, 0, 0) 3

Genetic techniques applied in Biotechnology; Gene engineering and acquisition of new perspectives in biotechnology; protein engineering; Attributes of genetic engineering to biotechnology.

804557 Insect Ultrastructure (2, 0, 2) 3

The fine structure of integument, the ultrastructure of cuticle, and epidermal cells, wax gland, silk gland, olfactory and mechanosensitive dorsal vessel, and pericardial cells, hematopoietic tissue, blood cells of insects, endocrine system, testis, ovary, spermatogenesis, oncogenesis, phallic complex, development and formation eggshell and their importance in systematic the structure of ultrastructure of digestive, tracheal system and excretory organs.

804558 Light Microscopy and Types (1, 0, 2) 2

Microscope, basic optic rules, mechanic and optic parts of microscope, objectives, ocular and condenser types. Microscopy types: Brightfield microscopy, darkgraund microscopy, phase contrast microscopy, interference microscopy, UV microscopy (fluorescence microscopy), polarisan microscopy. Confocal microscopy. Linear measurements in the microscope.

804559 The Metabolism of Biomolecules (3, 0, 0) 3

Metabolic intermediates of living organisms. Building blocks and their functions. Metabolism of carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, nucleic acids, hormones and vitamins. Essential and nonessential amino acids and their individual metabolisms.

804560 Helminthology (2, 0, 2) 3

Morphology, life cycles and growth; culture; body composition; breeding properties; respiration; excretion; osmotic pressure; resistance to digestive enzymes: movement;existance and reproduction in tissues; effects of environmental conditions on helminthes ‘temperature, humidity, oxygen, light, p degrees, chemicals, soil and plants); ethological properties of Helminthes. Epidemiology, identification in laboratory, protection and control methods against helminthes especially important ones for human health. To examine totally or on preparation of eggs, larvae or mature helminthes which have importance on human health.

804561 Invertebrate Endocrinology (2,0,2)3

Introduction to invertebrates endocrinology, history and future of invertebrates endocrinology, insect nervous system, insect endocrine system, brain, prothoracic gland, corpora cardiaca, corpora allata, suboesophageal ganglion, frontal ganglion, neurosecretory cells and their functions, the relationship of corpora allata and prothoracic gland, the relationship of behavior and corpora allata, the hormonal control of insect coloring adaptation, chemical structure of insect hormones, brain hormone, ecdisone, juvenile hormone, eclosion hormone, burcicon hormone, adipokinetic hormone, endocrine control of reproduction, endocrine control of diapose. Endocrine system of Crustacea, endocrine system of Annelida.

804562 Recent Advances in Molecular Biology (3, 0, 0) 3

RNA synthesis and splicing: Promoter sites on the DNA template; RNA polymerases; RNA synthesis in prokaryotes, RNA synthesis in eukaryotes; transcription factors; enhancer sequences; splice sites in mRNA precursors; lariant intermediates; small nuclear ribonucleoprotein particles; self splicing RNA; splicesome-catalyzed splicing. Protein targeting. Signal sequences; signal recognition particle; translocation across the endoplasmic reticulum membrane; dolichol donors and core sugars of glycoproteins; gylcosylation and sorting; mannose 6.phosphate a.s a marker; mitocondrial proteins; cytosolic proteins; chloroplast proteins; receptor mediated endocytosis and clatrin; destruction of proteins and ubiquitin. Phosphoinositide cascade. Protein folding; molecular chaperones; antirense technology.

804563 Nitrogen Assimilation in Plants (2, 0, 0) 2

Biological nitrogen fixation and symbiotic Bacteria, Formation of legume root nodules, biochemistry of nitrogen fixation, gaseous exchange in nodules, the role of leghemoglobin, nitrate assimilation, reduction of nitrate to nitrite, reduction of nitrite to ammonia, ammonia ¬assimilating pathways, incorporation of ammonia into organic compounds, incorporation of nitrogen into amino acids through transamination, amides, ureides, relationship with photosynthesis of nitrogen fixation, effects of environment on nitrogen fixation.

804564 Protein Blotting (Transfer) and its Application in Biology (2, 2, 0) 3

Extraction and purification of proteins, Gel electrophoresis techniques used in protein separation: Native-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (Native-PAGE), Sodium dodecyl sulfate-PAGE (SDS-PAGE), Isoelectric focussing gel electrophoresis, Immunoelectrophoresis. Protein blotting techniques: Dot-blot, Western blotting. Analysis of blots: Autoradiography, Non-radioactive methods. Applications of protein blotting in biological sciences: molecular classification of plants, animal and microorganisms, diagnosis of microbial diseases, autoimmun diseases, detection and standardization of allergens.

804565 Floristical Structure of Turkey (3, 0, 0) 3

Recent history of Turkish flora, western researchers and their studies contributing to the flora of Türkiye. Floristical regions in Türkiye and their features and species compositions. Floristical origin of Türkiye, the status and distribution of the common families and genera in Turkish flora. Habitat types in Turkiye and their special floristical compositions. Endemism in Turkiye, endemic species and their distribution, Anatolian diagonale. Statistical data on Turkish flora.

804566 The Biology of Mosses (2, 0, 2) 3

Origin and fossil history of mosses. Mechanism of waters transporting on mosses. Ontogeny of sex organs. Physiological causes of transfer of sperms from antheridium to archegonium. Ontogeny of sporophyte. Morphology of spore and its importance in systematy. Mosses and its relationships with hot springs, lakes, rockbuilding, sea water, sand, fire, tropical and temperate forest. Collection and preservation of mosses. determination, geographical distribution of mosses in Turkey. Land working.

804567 Advanced Plant Histology (2, 0, 2) 3

The reproductive organs histology: sepals and petals, petal pigments, stamen and pollens, carpel and ovules, megasporogenesis and female gametophyte, endosperm and embryo, fruits and seeds.

804568 The Biology of the Liverworts (2, 0, 2) 3

Classification of Hepatice, ontogeny of the sporophyte, stern and rhizoid, morphology and anatomy of gametophyte. Stern symmetry and the morphology of photosynthetic appendages. Morphology of spore and eleters. Morphological and anatomical differences between Hepaticae and related taxonomic groups. Geographical distribution of Hepaticae in Turkey. Collection and preservation of Liverworts systematic terminology, determination and land working.

804569 Microtechniques for Plant Tissues (2, 0, 2) 3

Special preparation techniques for different plant tissues and organs, and materials developed for different purposes, staining methods, microchemical methods, different macerasion methods for chromosomes and cell dividing.

804570 Anaerobic Bacteria (3, 0, 0) 3

The grouping of anaerobic Bacteria: Archaebacteria, Phototrophic bacteria, Sulfate-reducing bacteria, Gram-positive bacteria, and Gram-negative bacteria. Ecology of anaerobic bacteria: Anaerobic bacteria in viable organisms, terrestrial environments, and aquatic habitats. Metabolism of anaerobic bacteria: Anoxygenic photosynthesis, Anaerobic respiration, (Carbonate, Sulfur, Sulfate, Iron), Fermentations. Pathogenic anaerobic bacteria: Infections of spore and non-spore forming anaerobic bacteria, Industrial importance of anaerobic bacteria: Anaerobic bacteria in Food, Agriculture and Chemical industry.

804572 Cell Differentiation (2, 0, 0) 2

Introduction to developmental biology; how a single cell, the fertilized zygote, can give rise to an entire new organism; how genes control development; Cellular differentiation and its genetic and molecular control; the molecular and cellular mechanisms that underlie the differentiation of cells, the formation of tissues, and the development of organs and organisms; fertilization, cleavage, and morphogenesis of plants and animals; polarity and positional information; organogenesis and development of specialized tissues (Hematopoiesis Myogenesis, Osteogenesis, Neurogenesis); evolution and development; analysis and discussion of recent publications about cell differentiation.

804573 Anatomy of Economic Plants (2, 0, 2) 3

Economic value of the various plants used in parts of the anatomy and morphology, the quality of the plant material used in the determination of these characters looking, macroscopic and microscopic methods used to investigate the control of the purity of the plant material.

804574 Vegetation Dynamics in Turkey (3, 0, 0) 3

Population and community concept; formation, growth, fluctuations. Structure, aggregation. Relations and competitions between species. Succession concept, regressive and progressive processes of vegetation change. Phases of the succession. Study methods of the succession. Climax concept, climax types. Climax formations-Biomes, forest ecosystems and dynamics, examples from Turkey, temperate deciduous forests, dense equator forests, coniferous forests, meadow ecosystems and dynamics, examples from Turkey, steppes, savannas, constant meadows, aquatic ecosystems and dynamics, examples from Turkey

804575 The Biochemistry of Cell Activities (3, 0, 0) 3

The physiological functions of cell membranes, nucleic acid metabolism, polypeptides and biosynthesis of amino acids, protein biosynthesis, carbohydrate chemistry, reserve and structural carbohydrates, lipid metabolism, phenolic substances, polyamines, sulfate activation, cysteine and methionine biosynthesis.

804576 The Comparative Vertebrate Endocrinology (2, 0, 0) 2

Introduction to vertebrate endocrinology. The vertabrate neuroendocrinology and neurosecretion. The secretions of pituitary gland and its comparison in vertebrate. The pars-intermedia hormone and the control of pigmentation in vertebrate. The comparison of thyroid secretion,. the comparison of parathyroid secretion The endocrinology of pancreas. The activity and the chemical structure of insulin and glucagon. The secretion of adrenal gland. The gonads and gonadal hormones in vertebrate. The comparative endocrinology of gastro-intestinal hormones.

804577 Terminology of Plant Systematics (2, 0, 2) 3

General terms (outer surface, apex and basal forms of the leaves, lobing, texture, size, duration etc.). Terminology of structural diversity of the vegetative parts such as roots, stems and leaves, structural diversity and terminology of reproductive parts such as flower, fruits, seeds. General terms of the colors, eco-geographic terminology, prefixes and suffixes and standard abbreviations.

804578 Translocation in Plants(2, 0, 0) 2

The importance of water to plants. The structure and properties of water. Transport of process. Water balance of plants. Water in soil and water absorption by the root. The plant root systems and its interaction with the soil. Mycorrhizal fungi and their association with plant roots. Solute transport; passive and primary, secondary active transport, transport across biological membranes and transcellular transport. Phloem translocation; patterns of translocation, mechanisms of phloem loading and unloading, assimilative allocation and partitioning.

804579 Secondary Plant Metabolites (2, 0, 2) 3

Compounds in passive defence: Postinfectional inhibitors. Shikimic acid derivatives; Phenols, lignans. Shikimate- Polymalonate route; naphtoquinones, N-cotaining aromatics. Tricarboxylic asid cycle derivatives. Acetate-Polymalonat route, Fatty acid derivaties. Mevalonic acid derivatives; Terpenes and steroids. Compounds in induced resistance; Postinfectional inhibitörs. Phytoalexins and their elicitors. Metabolism of phytoalexins and toxins, detoxification of their.importance for pathogenicity and practical implications

804581 Plant Identification Techniques (2, 0, 2) 3

Necessary background information for the identification of plants and how to use identification keys are taught and described in detail, after explaining the terminology used in diagnosis of different plant families, genera and species; finally plant diagnosis with flora books is taught with practice.

804582 Alkaloids (2, 0, 0) 2

Chemical structure of alkaloids, biosynthesis, identification reactions and distribution of alkaloids in plants.

804583 Cancer Genetics (2, 2, 0) 3

Overview of cancer, immorfalization transformation and specific parameters, transforming viruses, DNA viruses, retroviruses, cellular oncogenes, protooncogene activation, mutations, DNA rearrangements, suppressors, classification of oncogenes.

804584 Molecular Approach of Plant Growth and Development (3, 0, 0) 3

The genetic basis of plant development, genetic control of pigment synthesis, transposons and effect of pigment synthesis, identification of key regulatory genes through homeotic mutations, plant nuclear genomes, number of genes required to encode the functions of an Angiosperm, important proteins encoded by multigene families, repetitive DNA in plant genomes, chromosomal localization of satellite DNAs, genomes of chloroplasts and mitochondria, important organelles in plant development, cell division and polarity, embryogenesis, seed development, gene expression regulating meristem function, genetic-molecular analysis of plant disease and nitrogen fixation.

804585 Biomineralization in Plants (3, 0, 0) 3

The role of calcium and oxalic acid in metabolic control, different type of minerals in plants and their accumulation; different type of calcium oxalate (Ca- Ox) crystals; histochemistry of Ca- Ox crystals, their hydration forms and identification by x-ray diffraction; accumulation Ca-Ox crystals in starch grains and their function; twinned and straight, raphides, prisms crystals and their development; biomineralization and pollution; “crystal idioblasts” in leaves; formation and development of Ca-Ox crystals in legume root nodules, floral organs such as gynoecia and anthers, seed and embryo; Ca-Ox crystals in fungi,bacteria and several plant patogens and their function in plant resistance; Ca-Ox crystals in Gymnosperm and Angiosperm and their role of Taxonomy; accumulation of calcium and oxalate and their quantitative analysis.

804586 Fertilization in Angiosperms and Incompatibility (2, 0, 2) 3

Stigma and the style on the morphological and anatomical structure, cytology and molecular structure of the pollen tube, pollen-pistil interaction. the role of pollen in Fertilization and seed setting, pollen sterility, Double fertilization, singami and types. Gametophytic and sporophytic self-incompatibility, and the genetic basis of the importance of natural and induced molecular aspects of the dispute, and cytoplasmic and nuclear male sterility.

804587 Seed Morphology and Anatomy (2,0,2)3

Seed development and the importance, the structure and the overall morphology of seeds, seed types and their characteristics, classification of seeds, seed storage tissue in the structure, development and cytology, and histological structure of the development of seed coat, seed coat differentiation and cytology, macrosclereid, osteosclereid, and alevrone layer of parenchyma ultrastructure, seed coat micromorphology, the specific structures and functions of the seeds.

804588 Biotechnology of Microalgae (2,0,2)3

Microalgae used in industry: Chlorella sp., Dunaliella sp., Scenedesmus sp., Spirulina sp., Porphiridium sp., Cyanobacteria and other microalgae. Microalgae products used in industry: Vitamines, Pigments, Amino acids, Polisaccharides, Carbohydrates and Lipids. Usage potential of microalgae in industry: In Aquacultures, as Human and Animal Food additive in Agriculture and Wastewater treatment. Factors that effect the growth of microalgae: Medium component, strength of light, oxygen and pH. Isolation methods of microalgae from various environments. Identification of microalgae. Preparation of microalgae cultures. Determination of their growth parameters (determination of the number and biomass).

804589 Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) and its Aplications (2.2.0) 3

804590 Isoenzyme Analysis and Application Scopes (2,2,0)3

Principles, Terminology and definitions, Isoenzymes encoded by multiple loci, Multiple allelism, Enzymes and their isoenzymes, Homomeric and heteromeric isoenzymes, Starch gel electrophoresis (application, collection of animal tissues, homogenization, storage of tissues, staining of gels, evaluation of gels, determination of alleles), Application scopes of isoenzyme electrophoresis (application to medicine, plant isoenzymes, population genetics, evolutionary biology, phylogenetic studies, and animal systematics)

804591 Organization, Function and Evolution of Genes (3,0,0)3

804592 The Place and Importance of Modern Biomass Energy in Sustainable Development (2,0,0) 2

804593 Primer and Seconder Biomass Measurement Techniques in Higher Plants (2,0,0) 2

804594 Immunochemical Methods in Molecular Biology (2,2,0)3

804595 Glycobiology (2,0,0) 2

Definiton, biosynthesis and molecular structures of carbohydrates (Glicans). Glycoconjugate formation with -O and -NH bind. The enzymatic process of glycosylation creating sugars/saccharides linked to themselves and to other molecules (protein, lipid etc.) by the glycosidic bind. Glycoconjugates in organisms: glycoproteins, glycolipids, proteoglicans, glycosphingolipids, glycophospolipids, glucose aminoglicans (GAG), sialic acid. Glycoconjugates and carbohydrates in secreted fluids, on the cell membranes, walls, capsules, in cytoplasm and organells. Functions glican and glycoconjugates: cell-cell cooperation and communication, self-nonself recognition, cell-matrix relation, cell movement. Used of glycoconjugates: designation of bloog group types, diagnose in disease, investigates in biology and biotechnology

804596 The Biology of Rivers (2,0,2) 3

Rivers and their formation, estuaries, brackish water, the distribution of dissolved substences, main dissolved salt, algae living in the rivers and their adaptations, macrophytes, zooplankton living in the rivers, benthic invertebrates and their anatimical and behavioral adaptation to the river. Fish that lies in rivers and streams effect of streams on the aquatic organisms. Fish adaptation of the rivers, movements of fish living in river. Their feeding migration, immigration control of fish living in the rivers. Other vertebrates living in the river, the main rivers in Turkey and their biological properties.

804597 The Systematic of Freshwater Fishes in Turkey (2,0,2) 3

Collection of fish samples. Identification of samples. General classification of freshwater fishes in Turkey. According to classification of features freshwater fishes in Turkey. Classification of until families from phylum of freshwater fishes in Turkey. Genus, species and subspecies. Identification key of freshwater fishes families in Turkey. Identification key of belong to Acipenseridae, Anguillidae, Salmonidae, Esocidae, Cyprinidae, Cobitidae, Siluridae, Cyprinodontidae, Mugilidae and Percidae families.

804598 Genome (2,0,2) 3