Undergraduate courses

BIY 101 GENERAL BIOLOGY-I (4 0 0) 4

Biological molecules, Cell membrane structure and function; Cell structure and function, Energy flow in the life of a cell and photosynthesis, Respiration, Structure of DNA, RNA; gene expression and heredity, Cellular reproduction, Biotechnology, Nomenclature and classification of living organisms, Protists, slime molds, algae, fungi, musci and mosses, plants, Animals, their characteristics, animal phyla, Evolution and natural selection, Hardy-Weinberg theory, formation of species, Evolution of seed plants, vertebrates

BIY 102 GENERAL BIOLOGY-II (4 0 0) 4

Plant Form and Function, Root, Stem and Leaves. Plant Life Cycles, Plant Responses to the Environment; Plant Hormones, Homeostasis and the organzation of the Animal Body, Circulatory system, Respiratory system, Nutrition, Digestive system, Urinary system, Immune system, Endocrine system, Circulatory system, Respiratory system, Animal Nervous System and The Senses, Animal Reproduction and Development, Animal Behavior, Population growth and regulation, Community relationships, How do ecosystems work? Various ecosystems in the world

BIY 103 ENVIRONMENTAL BIOLOGY (2 0 0) 2

Structure of biosphere and its relation with men, Energy flow in biosphere, Ecosystem and its functions, Factors disturbing biosphere, Demography, Structure of atmosphere, International environmental contracts, Global environmental problems, Global warming and climate changes, Ozone depletion and its effects on the world, PAN and PAH, Acid rains, Alternative energy sources,Erosion, Biodiversity and sustainable development

 

BIY 104 Microtechnic (1 0 2) 2

Theoretical: Principles and general techniques,  Specimen collected methods, Killing and fixation, Dehydration and infiltration, Embedding and sectioning, Stains (dyes), Staining techniques, Common adhesives and mounting media, Special techniques, Whole mount methods and maceration, Paraffin method I, Paraffin method ıı, Light microscopy, principles of light microscopy and attachments, Electron microscopic studies.

Practical: Definition of glass equipments, laboratory devices, Tissue fixation, Tissues processing, Maceration, Maceration, Heiz-aceto carmin methods, Glycerin-Gelatin methods, Paraffin method I, Paraffin method II, Paraffin method III, Paraffin method IV, Paraffin method V, Definition of light microscopy, Demonstration of Electron microscopy preparations.

 

BIY 151 LABORATORY OF GENERAL BIOLOGY-I (0 0 2) 1

Visiting to herbarium, animal museum, electron microscope and greenhouse, Microscopy, Prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells, Starch granules, Plastids, Chrystals, Enzymes, Biological molecules, Mitosis and meiosis, Segmentation, Plant tissue:Transportation and Supportive, Animal tissuses: Skeletion, Cartilage, Blood and Muscles

BIY 152 GENERAL BIYOLOGY LABORATORY-II (0 0 2) 1

Root, Stem, Leaf, Flower, Fruit and seed, Digestive system, Heart of Mammalia, Nervous System, Endocrine system, Circulatory system, Respiratory system, Plant systematics, Animal systematics, Frog Disection

 

BIY 201 CYTOLOGY (3 0 0) 3

Basic structural elements of biological systems, the general and chemical structure of the cell, techniques for investigating the cells, ultrastructure of the cell, cell membrane, intracellular membrane system and cytoplasm, cytoskeleton , golgi complex, mitochondria, plastids and chloroplasts, endoplasmic reticulum,  ribosomes, protein synthesis in ribosomes, comparison of protein synthesis in eukaryotes and prokaryotes, synthesis of secretion proteins in the membrane-bound ribosomes, centrioles, nucleus, cell cycle, control of cell cycle, chromosomes and cell division, cell differentiation and aging.

 

BIY 201 CYTOLOGY (3 0 0) 3

Introduction to cytology,  research tecniques  of  cell. Definition and properties of procaryotic and eucaryotic cells. Chemical and physical  structure of cell. Structure of plasma membrane and cell wall. Differentiation structures of cell membrane, molecule transport of cell membrane, cell-cell adhesion,convey of signal in the cell,  communications of cells. Cell skeleton and movement of  organells.  Biomolecules of cell 8Proteins, Carbohydrates, Lipids, DNA and RNA) and its properties. Structure and functions of cell Organells: Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) (Rough and smooth ER),  Golgi Complex, Primer and seconder lysosomes, Inclusion of cell, Plastids (such as Chloroplast), sentrioles, Mitochondria, Ribosome.  Structure and function of nucleus and nucleolus. Control and  Mechanism of cell division. Apoptosis, Differentiation of cell.

BIY 202 ANIMAL HISTOLOGY (2 0 0) 2

Definition and types of  tissues of organism.  General properties of epithelial tissue, Different membrane structures of epithelial cell,  types of epithelial tissue (covering epithelia, glandular epithelia, neuroepithelia, myoepithelia).  Cells and matrix of  connection tissue, Fibrills of  connection tissue (collagen fibers, reticular fibers and elastic fibers). Brown and yellow adipose tissues. Cartilage tissue and its types (Hyaline, elastic and fibro cartilage) Cells and matrix of Bone tissue, Types of bone tissue, growth and remodelling of bone. Growth of nerve tissue, cellular properties and cell types of nerve tissue. Muscle tissue and its types ( smooth, skeletal and  cardiac muscles). Properties of blood tissue cells and matrix.

BIY 202 ANIMAL HISTOLOGY (2 0 2) 2

Definition of histology, its methods and applications, classification of tissues, epithelial tissue (types of epithelia, morphological characteristics of epithelia, cell surface differentiation), connective tissue (basic material, fibers, connective tissue cells, types of connective tissue), adipose tissue, unilocular adipose tissue, multilocular adipose tissue, cartilage tissue (hyaline cartilage, elastic cartilage, fibrous cartilage, intervebral disks, repair of cartilage), bone tissue (bone cells, bone matrix, bone types, growth and remodeling of bone), nerve tissue (neurons, nerve fibers, synapses, ganglions, blood-brain barrier), muscule tissue (skeletal muscle, cardiac muscle, smooth muscle, regeneration of muscle tissue), blood tissue (formed elements of the blood, plasma, hematopoiesis, hematopoietic stem cell, control of hematopoiesis)

 

BIY 203 CRYPTOGAMIC BOTANY    (2 0 2) 3   

Systematics, history and position of plant kingdom. General, biological and economical features of algae, Systematics. Systematic and biology of Cyanophyta ve Chlorophyta. Systematic and biology of Charophyta ve Euglenophyta. Systematic and biology ofDinophyta ve Bacillariophyta. Systematic and biology of Xanthophyta, Chrysophyta ve Cryptophyta.Systematic and biology of Phaephyta ve Rhodophyta. General, biological and economical features of fungi, Systematics. Systematic, biology and economic aspects of Myxomycota. Systematic, biology and economic aspects of Eumycota. Systematic, biology and economic aspects of Phycomycetes and Ascomycetes. Systematic, biology and economic aspects of Basidiomycetes and Fungi imperfectii. General, biological and economical features of Lichenes, Systematics. Biological and economical features of Ascolichenes and Basidiolichenes, Systematics

 

BIY 203 CRYPTOGAMIC BOTANY LABORATORY

Chlorophyta samples. Charophyta samples. Phaeophyta samples. Rhodophyta samples. Dinophyta samples. Bacillariophyta ve Chrysophyta samples. Micro fungi samples. Macro fungi samples. Lichenes samples according to morphological variations.

BIY 204 SEED PLANTS-I (2 0 0) 2

History and Fundamentals of plant systematics, Classifications of Gymnosperms and general characteristics, Pre-Phanerogames, Cycadales, Ginkgoales, Fossil Gymnosperms, Coniferales, their phylogeny and classifications, Pinales, Pines of Turkey, Genera of Pinus, Abies, Cedrus and Picea , examples from world and Turkey, Araucariaceae, Podocarpaceae, Cupressaceae, Taxodiaceae, Taxales, Cephalotaxales, Ephedrales, Welwitschiales, Gnetales

B205 PLANT HISTOLOGY (1 0 0) 1

Tissues, Tissues system, Importance of ISA, Cell wall, formation of cell wall. Tissues:I Meristematic tissues, Taxonomy of Meristematic tissues, II non-meristematic tissues, 1- A) Epidermis, 1- B) Periderm and Lentisel, 2- Parenchyma tissue, 3- Support tissue, A) Collenchyma, B) Sclerenchyma, 4- Vascular tissue, A) Xylem, B) Phloem, 5- Secretory tissues, 6. Secretory cells

 

BIY 206 PLANT MORPHOLOGY (2 0 0) 2

Vegetative organs, 1-Stem , 1- A) Primary structure of stem, 1- B)  Secondary  structure of stem, 1- C) Outline structure of stem , 2- Leaves, 2- A) Internal structures of leaves, 2- B) Outline structure of leaves , 3- Root, 3- A) Primary structure of root, 3- B) Secondary structure of root , 3- C) Morphology of root, Generative organs, 1- Flowers, 1- A) Morphology of flowers, 2- Fruits, Seed morphology and anatomy.

BIY 207 MOLECULAR BIOLOGY-I (2 0 0) 2

Molecular organization pathway, organic and inorganic biochemical molecules in the cell; functional groups, covalent and noncovalent interactions; amino acids, peptides and proteins; characteristics of peptide bond,  protein modifications and determination of N and C terminal groups; the tree-dimentional structure of proteins, common secondary structures of proteins; protein motifs; protein denaturation and folding; protein functions; acidic and basic characteristics of peptide and proteins; general informations about enzymes; nucleic acid structures and macromoleculer organizations; DNA forms and structures; unusual DNA structures; nucleic acid chemistry, nonenzymatic transformation; chromosomal elements; DNA supercoiling, topoisomers and topoisomerases; chromatin and nucleoid structure.

 

BIY 208 MOLECULAR BIOLOGY-II (2 0 0) 2

Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic genes, Replication of DNA, Transcription in prokaryotes and eukaryotes, RNA processing, Translation, Regulation of gene expression, lac opren, his operon, trp operon, Catabolite repression, Electrophoresis, Blotting techniques, Probing techniques, Recombinant DNA technology, Restriction-modification systems, DNA sequencing, Cloning and clones.

 

BIY 209 GENERAL MICROBIOLOGY (2 0 0) 2

Histrorical evolution of microbiology, procaryotic cell structures and functions, cytoplasmic membrane, cell wall, flagella and motility, fimbria and pilus, cell surface structures, procaryotic genome structure, cell inclusions, endospore, bacteria and fungus pigments, microbial metabolism, catabolic diversity and an overview of biosynthesis, energy recovery from organics, energy recovery from inorganics and light, microbial growth, environmental effects on microbial growth, microbial growth control.

BIY 210 GENERAL MICROBIOLOGY-II (2 0 0) 2

Microbial Molecular Biology, DNA structure and function, RNA structure and function, Regulation of gene expression, Regulation of enzyme activity and synthesis, structural properties of Viruses, Bacteriophages, Retroviruses, Viroids and Prions, Microbial genetic and genetic engineering, Microbial ecology and certain groups of bacteria, The Archaea, Microbial Biotechnology, Medical Microbiology

BIY 251 LABORATORY OF CYTOLOGY (0 0 2) 1

Definition and properties of procaryotic and eucaryotic cells. Examiniation of cell membrane and cell wall.  Examiniation of cell organells: Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) (Rough and smooth ER),  Golgi Complex, Primer and seconder lysosomes, Inclusion of cell, Plastids (such as Chloroplast), sentrioles, Mitochondria, Ribosome. Examination of nucleus and nucleolus. Examination of chromosomes in different division stages.

 

BIY 252 ANIMAL HISTOLOGY LABORATORY (0 0 2) 1

Investigation of paraffin blocked tissue sections under the light microscope. General classification of the tissues, Epithelial tissue, covering epithelia and its classification, simple cuboidal epithelium (kidney preparate) simple columnar epithelium (intestine preparate), stratified squamous keratinized epithelium, stratified squamous nonkeratinized epithelium (esophagus preparate), ciliated pseudostratified  columnar epithelium (trachea preparate), stratified transitional epithelium (ureter preparate), glandular epithelium and its classification, exocrine glands (investigation of sebaceous glands and sweat glands in skin preparate, serous glands/ mucosal glands/ seromucous glands in trachea preparate ), endocrine glands (thyroid and adrenal gland preparates), mixed glands (pancreas) , connective tissue fibers, cartilage tissue (hyaline cartilage, fibrous cartilage, elastic cartilage), bone tissue, muscle tissue (striated muscle, smooth muscle and cardiac muscle), blood tissue.

 

BIY 252 LABORATORY OF ANIMAL HISTOLOGY (0 0 2) 1

Examination of several types of epithelial tissue (covering epithelia, glandular epithelia, neuroepithelia, myoepithelia).  Examination of  connection tissue fibrills (collagen fibers, reticular fibers and elastic fibers). Examination of Brown and yellow adipose tissues. Examination of Cartilage tissue types (Hyaline, elastic and fibro cartilage). Examination of cells and matrix of Bone tissue, Examination of cell types of nerve tissue. Examination of Muscle tissue types (smooth, skeletal and  cardiac muscles). Examination of cell types of blood tissue.

BIY 254 SEED PLANTS LABORATORY-I (0 0 2) 1

Plant collection techniques, Herbarium, Botanical gardens, Arboretums, Terminology: Leaf, Terminology: Stem, Terminology: Root, Terminology: Flower, Formulas and diagrams of flower, Fruit types, Identification keys, Generative organs of Pinaceae, Vegetative organs of Pinaceae, Determination and identification of Pinaceae members, Determination and identification of Cupressaceae members, Determination and identification of Taxaceae members

B255 PLANT HİSTOLOGY LABORATORY (0 0 2) 1

Meristematic tissues, II non-meristematic tissues, Parenchyma, Parenchyma, Epidermis -Stomata, Amaryllis type stomata, Epidermis – Stomata, Gramineae type stomata, Epidermis – Stomata, Mnium type stomata, Epidermis – Stomata, Stomata types in Dicotyledons, Stomata types in Monocotyledons, Epidermis – Trichomes, Periderm and Lentisel, Supported tissue, Vascular tissue, Secretory tissue, Glandular tissue

BIY 256 PLANT MORPHOLOGY LABORATORY (0 0 2) 1

Stems of Pteridophytes, Primary structure of stem – Stem of monocotyledons, Primary structure of stem – Stem of dicotyledons, Primary structure of stem – Stem of Gymnosperms, Primary structure of stem – Stem of Angiosperms, Leaves – Leaves of Gymnosperms, Leaves – Leaves of Monocotyledons, Leaves – Leaves of Dicotyledons Bifacial leaves , Leaves – Leaves of Dicotyledons, Equifacial leaves, Leaves – Leaves of Dicotyledons, Unifacial leaves, Root – Root of Monocotyledons, Root – Root of Dicotyledons, Flowers, Fruits and Seeds

BIY 259 GENERAL MICROBIOLOGY LABORATORY-I (0 0 2) 1

Rules supposed to be obeyed in laboratory, Microscope used in microbiology and their aim of applications, Devices and equipments used in microbiology field, Types of sterilization in microbiology, Growth media used in microbiology, Preparation of media, Inoculation of media, Investigation of colony morphology of microorganisms, Preparation of pure culture, Staining of bacteria-Simple staining

BIY 260 GENERAL MICROBIOLOGY LABORATORY-II (0 0 2) 1

Microscopic and Cultural counting of bacteria, Physiological and biochemical properties of microorganisms: Catalase test, Jelatinase test, Amylase test, Sugar fermentation, H2 S production, Antibiotic susceptibility test and Evaluation of the results, Motility test in microorganisms, Moulds, Yeasts

 

BIY 301 GENETICS I (2 2 0) 3

History of genetics, definiations of genotype, phenotype, gene, allele and hybridisation, explanation of monogenic and polygenic heredity. Logic of Mendel`s experiments, Mendel`s rules (segregation and independent assortment). Monohybrit, dihyhbrit ve trihybrit crosses, Control (test) crosses and statistical analysis of crossing results, Transmisssion genetics in human and human pedigrees, Chromosomal basis of mitosis and meiosis and alternation of generations in plants, Extensions of Mendel`s rates (incomplete dominance, codominance, multiple allelism, letal alleles), Epistasy and X chromosome linkage in human, Internal and external factors that  effect genetic expression (penetrance, expressivity, suppression ve positon effects, temperature, food and nutrition, initation of genetic expression, genetic anticipation and genetic imprint), Linkage, crossing-over and gene maps in eucaryotes, Advanced genetic mapping techniques in eucaryotes (tetrad analyses) and genetic mapping in procaryotes(conjugation, transduction, transformation), Chromosomal mutations-I (Changes in chromosome structure), Chromosomal mutations-II (Changes in chromosome numbers), Population genetics-I (determination of allelic frequencies, Hardy-Weinberg rule, genetic variation and the methods based on the identification of genetic variations), Population genetics-II (Effects that result in changes of allelic frequences: mutation, genetic drift, random changes in allelic frequences, migration and natural selection), Design of hybridization experiments for different plant and animal species, Explanation of crosses with Punnett square and .phenotypic class diiagrams, Khi-square tests, Pedigree analyses, Karyokinesis steps in plants, AB0 and MN blood groups, white locus in  Drosophila and theoritical analysis of lethal allelic effect samples, Analysis of epistatic rates, Molecular basis of epigenetic, Solving  sample problems, Solvings of sample problems, Karyotype analyses-I, Karyotype analyses-II, Mathematical definition of allelic frequencies in populations, Solving  sample problems

 

BIY 302 GENETICS II (2 2 0) 3

Physical and chemical properties of DNA and RNA, nucleases, chromosomal organization, replisome, primosome, DNA polymerases, replication models, DNA repairing, gene organization, structure and function of promoters, operons and gene clusters, RNA polymerases, transcription factors, RNA processing, universal characteristics of genetic code and transfer RNA, ribosomal organization, translation and protein transport, genetic regulation, population genetics.

 

BIY 303 ANIMAL PHYSIOLOGY (3 0 0) 3

 

Cell physiology, Intracellular messenger systems, Metabolism, Nervous system: evolution, neurons, impulse conduction, synapses, neuromuscular junction, neurotransmitters, sense receptors, functional anatomy of spinal cord, structure of brain, autonomic and somatic nervous system, memory, sleep,  biological rhythms, The senses, Muscle physiology, Respiratory system: Evolution of lungs, respiratory organs, respiratory types, transport of respiratory gases, haemoglobin structure and function, The Urinary system: Excretion mechanisms in animal, balance of water and salt, structure and function of nephron, The Circulatory system: human circulation system, structure and features of heart muscle, atrioventricular and semilunar valves, blood vessels and its control, the lymphatic system, The digestion system: evolution, function and structure of the digestion system, pancreas, liver and its bile production, Hormones: classification, effect mechanisms, endocrine glands and its functions

 

BIY 304 PLANT PHYSIOLOGY (3 0 0) 3

Energetics and bioenergetics, sibernetics and kinetics,  molecular and structural organization of plant cells in relation with functional aspects of the cells, physiology of plant cell nutrition and metabolism, relations of genetical structure and metabolism, primary and secondary metabolisms,  physiology of phytoplanktons,  growth, development and differentiation physiology of  decious and woody plants, and the basic mechanisms involved,  ecophysiology,  research in plant physiology and methodology .

 

BIY 305 INVERTEBRATE ZOOLOGY I (2 0 0) 2                                                                                 

Classing Characters for Invertebrates , Cell organisation, Embryonal layer , Segmentation , Circulation , Sense organs , Respiration , Excretion,Separating to groups Invertebrates by their embryonal development, Classifications of Invertebrates  Regnum Protista, Subregnum Protozoa, Characteristcs of Protozoa; movement of Protozoa, Digestion on Protozoa, Reproduction , Cyscting on Protozoa, Phylum Sarcomastigophora, Classis Masttigophora Classis Sarcodina, Classis Sporozoa, Classis Ciliata, Regnum Animalia, Subregnum Metazoa, Phylum Porifera,Classis Calcarea, Classis Hexactinellida = Triaxonida, Classis Demospongia, Phylum Coelenterata (=Cnidaria), Classis Hydrozoa, Classis Scyphozoa, Classis Anthozoa, Phylum Ctenophora (=Acnidaria), Classis Tentaculata, Classis Atentaculata, Phylum Platyhelminthes, Classis Turbellaria, Classis Trematoda, Classis Cestoda, Phylum Nemertina, Phylum Gastrotrichia, Phylum Rotifera (Rotatoria), Phylum Acanthocephala, Phylum Nematoda, Phylum Nematomorpha, Phylum Mollusca, Classis Gastropoda, Classis Scaphopoda,Classis Lamellibranchiata (Bivalvia), Classis Cephalopoda , Phylum Annelida  Classis Polychaeta , Classis Oligochaeta , Classis Hirudinea .

BIY 306 VERTEBRATE ZOOLOGY (2 0 0) 2

Definition and general characteristics of Chordata, their place and importance in animal kingdom. General characteristics, systematics and biyology of Protochordata, Cyclostomata. Pisces (Chondrichthyes and Ostichthyes), Amphibia, Reptilia, Aves, Mammalia. Biology and distribution ofTurkey’s Mammals.

BIY 307 ECOLOGY (2 0 0) 2

Description of ecology, and the relations of its subdivisions and other disciplines. Habitat and ecological niche.  Ecosystem concept and general characteristics. Ecological laws and concepts  (Tolerance rules, restrict rules, ecological tolerance, competition, community concept, succession, convergence and divergence). Biogeochemical cycle (Carbon, Nitrogen, Phosphor cycles). Importance of light and photoperiodism for plants and animals. Importance of temperature  for plants and animals.  Importance of climatic and edaphic factors for plants and animals. Relationships within population and between populations. Biomes (Life zones). Population ecology. Community ecology. Reproduction ecology. Ecologic adaptations and evolutions. Adaptive ecology (conservation ecology, oroductivity

BIY 307 GENERAL ECOLOGY (2 0 0) 2

The importance of ecology in biological sciences. The concepts of ecosystem and ecological cycles. Biogeographical regions and bioms. The abiotic components of ecosystem. The effects of temparatures on plants and animals. The importance of photoperiod for plants and animals. The effects of altitude, precipitation and humidity on plants and animals. Climagrammes and the application fields for plant and animals. The importance of soil structures for plants and animals. The methods for data collections for animals. The estimating methods for animal population sizes. The numerical methods for measuring species diversity in an ecosystem. Life forms and interaction among species. Population growth, survivorship curves and age pyramides.

BIY 308 EVOLUSION (2 0 0) 2

Evolution and differention of species (mutation, genetic recombination, natural selection). Isolation (geographical and ecological isolation, seasonal isolation, mechanical and ethological isolation, inner obstacles). Sudden ecospecies and step by step ecospecies. Evolutionary changes of plant world (Fossils of primitive and advanced plants). Geological timetable (Arceosoic, Proterosoic, Paleosoic, Mesosoic, Senosoic).  Continental drift. Crossing of plants from water to land. Primitive and advanced characters.  Phylogenetic relations among Pteridospermae, Gymospermae and Angispermae. Constitution of the universe.  Beginnig of life on earth and evolution of prokaryotes and eukaryotes.  Hardy-Weinberg theory. Species formations and methods. Homology, analogy, convergent, divergent, parallel and mosaic evolution, adaptive dehis-cense, total extinction concepts. Evolution of invertebrates. Evolution of vertebrates and crossing of animals from water to land.

BIY 309 BIOCHEMISTRY-I (2 0 0) 2

Introduction to biochemistry (biological importance of biochemistry); functional importance of carbohydrates ,  structures and classifications; monosaccharides and disaccharides; polysaccharides; proteoglycans, glycoproteins ve glycolipids; analysis of carbohydrates; glycolysis; fates of carbohyrates under aerobic and anaerobic conditions; feeder pathways for glycolysis; regulation ofcarbohyrate catabolism; pentose phosphate pathway of glucose oxidation; production of asetate; reactions of citric acid cycle; regulations of citric acid cycle; the glyoxylate cycle; oxidative phosphorylation; regulation of oxidative phosphorylation; glukoneogenesis; biosynthesis of glycogen, starch, sucrose, and other carbohydrates.

BIY 310 BIOCHEMISTRY-II (2 0 0) 2

Introduction to biochemistry (biological importance of biochemistry); functional importance of carbohydrates ,  structures and classifications; monosaccharides and disaccharides; polysaccharides; proteoglycans, glycoproteins ve glycolipids; analysis of carbohydrates; glycolysis; fates of carbohyrates under aerobic and anaerobic conditions; feeder pathways for glycolysis; regulation ofcarbohyrate catabolism; pentose phosphate pathway of glucose oxidation; production of asetate; reactions of citric acid cycle; regulations of citric acid cycle; the glyoxylate cycle; oxidative phosphorylation; regulation of oxidative phosphorylation; glukoneogenesis; biosynthesis of glycogen, starch, sucrose, and other carbohydrates.

BIY 353 ANIMAL PHYSIOLOGY LABORATORY (0 0 2) 1

Definition and objectives of Animal Physiology Laboratory lecture, metabolism and basal metabolism, carbohydrate digestion, lipids digestion, protein digestion, effects of heat and pH on enzyme activity, haemolysis, determination of blood groups, examination of respiration and respiratory activity, determination of color blindness, measuring arterial blood pressure, comparative examination of decerebre and spinal frog activities, examination of reflex activity and physio-anatomy of frogs

 

BIY 354 PLANT PHYSIOLOGY LABORATORY (0 0 2) 1

Experiment and analyses of Physiology, The laboratory chemicals, glassware and apparatus, Preparation and properties of solutions, Drying, Determination of fresh and dry weights, Qualitative analysis of Starch, reducing and nonreducing sugars, proteins and lipids, Plant- Water Relationships :Diffusion rate, osmotic pressure, water uptake, swelling in ,electrolyte solutions, osmotic potential of the sap., Effects of Temperature and some chemicals on germination, Effects of mineral nutrients on plant development, Chromatographic techniques and experiments, Extraction of Chlorophyll and identification, Measurement of Photosynthesis Rate: qualitative demonstration of photosynthesis and determination of its rate., Respiration, Hormones. Investigation of effects gibberiline on amylase activity, Geotropism and Phototropism in plants, plant tissue culture

 

BIY 355 INVERTEBRATE ZOOLOGY LABORATORY (0 0 2) 1

Examing of tha samples from culture (Vorticella sp. Stentor sp. Carchaesium sp. Dileptus sp. Paramecium sp. ) Examinations of Trypanosoma gambiense ready made samples Examing of Plasmodium sp. ve Toxoplasma gondii  ready made samples Examing of …. Textularia sp., Rotalia sp., Nummulites sp., Nodosaria sp., Globigerina sp.,  Elphidium sp.,   ready made samples Examing of Skeleton Structures Euspongia officinalis ve Calcarea sp ready made samples . Examing of  Obelia geniculata, Campanularia sp., Sertularella sp., Tubularia larynx, Agleophenia pluma ,ready made samples Examing of  Aurelia aurita  and  Alyconium digitatum  ready made samples Examing of  Planaria gonocephala ,Dicrocoelium dendriticum , Fasciola hepatica samples  and Examing of preserved Taenia saginata , Taenia solium samples in formol Examing of preserved  Ascaris megalocephala –wide section and Gordius aquaticus samples in formol Examing of preserved  Sephia officinalis  ,Loligo vulgaris and  Octopus vulgaris  samples in formol Examing of Classis Gastropoda and Classis Lamellibranchiata samples Examing of Nereis sp. ready made samples Examing of preserved (Lumbricus terrestris –wide section ) and  Hirudo medicinalis  samples in formol.

 

BIY 356 VERTEBRATE ZOOLOGY LABORATORY (0 0 2) 1

Collection, preparation and keeping of Chordata specimens. Definition of Chordata, types of chorda. Examination of Protochordata specimens.  Morphology and Anatomy of Cyclostomata and examination of specimens. Morphology ,anatomy, exosceletion  and structure of gills, electricity producing organ,venom gland of Pisces. Examination of Chondrichthyes and Osteichthyes specimens. Morphology and anatomy of Amphibia, Reptilia, Aves, Mammalia and examination of specimens. Definition  of mammals ofTurkey.

 

BIY 359 BIOCHEMISTRY LABORATORY-I (0 0 2) 1

General information about biochemistry laboratory; biochemical solutions; molarity, normality, isotonic, osmolar, percent and molal solutions and dilutions; suspention; emulsification and colloidal solutions; acids, bases and buffer solutions and their calculations; calculations of pH and pOH; practice for the preparation of biochemical solutions; acidic effect on carbohydrates; Molish, Antron, Seliwanoff and Bial tests; alkalide solutions effect on carbohydrates; Moore test; some tests about reducing carbohydrates; qualitative Fehling, Benedict, Picric acid and Tollens tests; Fischer test; test for polysaccharides; quantitative tests of carbohydrates; general information about spectrophotometer and blood composition; determination of blood sugar with Folin-Wu.

BIY 360 BIOCHEMISTRY LABORATORY-II (0 0 2) 1

Qualitative cholesterol tests; total blood cholesterol tests with Zak method; qualitative amino acid tests; ninhydrine reaction; Ksantoprotein and Million tests; qualitative and quantitative tests for proteins; measurement  of ascorbic acid in fruit juice; tests with nucleic acid; diphenilamine and orsinol tests; general information about chromatographic methods; separation of amino acids with paper chromatography;  normal composition of urine, determination of ketone bodies, bile salts and blood in urine; determination of protein in urine; Tanred, Haller, acetic acid, sulphosalisilic acid and trichloroacetic acid tests; Purdy and Esbach tests for determination of protein in urine.

 

BIY 401 GENERAL SOIL SCIENCE (2 0 2) 3

Theoretical: The introduction of Pedology, Soil constituents and soil processes, Soil cavities system, soil structure and texture, Soil forming factors, Soil development process, Soil profile, Biotic factors, Soil classification systems, Azonal soils and types, Podzols, Calcareous soils, Intrazonal soils, Intrazonal soil types, Azonal soils

Practical: Presentation of study groups, The importance of edaphology, Soil sampling techniques, Preserving of the soil samples, Sample preparation, Sub-sampling, Physical analysis, Water content, Particle-size analysis, Fine clay, Chemical analysis, Soil reaction, Calcium carbonate equivalent, Final exam of the laboratory studies

BIY 402 PLANT EMBRYOLOGY (2 0 2) 3

Flower, Flower structure, Microsporangium, Male gametophyte, Megasporangium, Ovule, Female gametophyte, Polen grain, polinization, Fertilization, Endosperm, types of endosperm, Embryo development, ıncompatıbılıty and types of ıncompatıbılıty, Polyembryony, Apomixis, Seed structure, Function, Dispersal and Germination.

Flower structure and types, Placenta types, Polen types, In-vitro polen germination, Structure of microsporangium in young and mature anthers, Meiosis, Embryo sac development in Adoxa type, Embryo development in Crucifer type, Suspensor types, Dicotyledone and Monocotyledone seeds.

BIY 403 INTRODUCTION TO PALYNOLOGY (2 0 2) 3

Theory: Introduction and history of palynology, Pollen Analysis of Honey and Geological Research, Atmospheric Pollen Analysis, Generative organs of Plants, Angiosperm pollen morphology, Sporoderm structure, Kinds of Ornamentation, Pollen type and shape, Symetry and polarity, Gymnosperm pollen, morphology, Fungi and Lichen spore morphology, Bryophytes spore morphology, Pteridophytes spore morphology,

Practice: Preparing of pollen and spores preparates, Different kinds of methods of pollen analysis of Honey and Geological Research, Different kinds of methods of atmospheric pollen analysis, Ultrastructure of young and mature anther, Different kinds of pollen belong to Angiosperm, Sporoderm structures of different kinds of plants, Ornamentations of different kinds of plants, Pollen type and shape of different kinds of plants, Different kinds of pollen symmetry and polarity, Different kinds of pollen belong to Gymnosperm, Different kinds of spores belong to Fungi and lichen, Different kinds of spores belong to Bryophytes, Different kinds of spores belong to Pteridophytes

BIY 404 ALGOLOGY (2 2 0) 3  

Theory: Introduction,  What are algae and what is their place in system,  Endosymbiosis and the Origin of Eukaryotic Algae,  Structure of the algal cell,  Flagella,  Cell walls and musilages, Nucleus,  Ribosomes,  Mitochondria  Golgi bodies,  Endoplasmic reticulum,  Contractile vacuoles,  Gas vacuoles,  Structure of the plastids in various algal groups,  Pigments,  Storage products,  Nutrition,  Morphological diversity in the algae (Unicells and colonies, Filaments, Siphanaceous forms, Parenchymatous forms),  Reproduction and Life history,  Utilization of algae in technology.

Practical: Unicellular algae samples.  Flagellatae colonies algae samples. Non-flagellatae colonies algae samples. Tetrasporal algae samples. Unbranched filamentous algae samples. Branching filamentous algae samples. Heterotrichous type algae samples. Siphonaceous type algae samples. Parenchymatous type algae samples. Examination of cell wall organization in the algae.

BIY 405 MOSSES (2 0 2) 3

General Structure of Bryophytes, Anthocerotopsida( Hornworts),Hepaticae( Liverworts), Jungermanniales, Metzgeriales, Marchantiales, Calobryales,  General Structure of mosses (Bryopsida), Gametophyte, Arkegoniumi Antheriyum, Sporophyte and Capsule, Capsules and spore dispersal,  Ecology, Hot springs, Travertines, Lakes, Fire, Hot deserts, Forest Vegetation, Collection  and identification methods. Some moss samples; ( Dicranum scoparium, Hynum cupressiforme, Brachythecium rivularei Sphagnum palustre, Tortella tortuosa, Rhytidiadelhus triquetrus).

 

BIY 406 VEGETATION OF TURKEY (2 0 0) 2

Turkey’s climate and bioclimatic zones, Phytogeographycal regions of Turkey, General vegetation types of Turkey, Plant cover history of Turkey, Mediterranean vegetation in Turkey: maquis, Mediterranean vegetation in Turkey: Evergreen forests, Mediterranean vegetation in Turkey: Decidious forests, Mediterranean vegetation in Turkey: Alpine zone, Black Sea vegetation in Tukey: Evergreen forests, Black Sea vegetation in Tukey: Decidious forests, Black Sea vegetation in Tukey: Alpine zone, Step vegetation of Central and East Anatolia, Special vegetation types of Turkey, Phytosociological units defined from Turkey’s vegetation

 

BIY 407 PLANT GEOGRAPHY (2 0 0) 2

Introduction and history,  factors affecting plant disrubution,  Temparature, Light, Water, Climate effects, Biyotic and historical effects, Floristic districts of World, Boreal Kingdom ( Mediterranean, West and Middle Europe, Europe-Sibiria), Phytogeogprachical districts of Turkey, Europe-Sibiria district, Irono-Turanien district, Mediterranean district, Cosmopolit family, genus and species, Endemics, Vicarians  plants, Areals and distributional factors.

BIY 408 MEDICAL PLANTS (2 0 0) 2

Nomenclature and determination of plants,  Identifications of Drugs, Some samples of drugs related to following divisions ; Cyanophyta, Chlorophyta, Phycophyta, Phaeophyta, Mycophyta, , Lichenes, Bryophyta (Mosses) Pteridophyta (Ferns), Gymnopermae (Semiopen seeds) ,Angiospermae (Seeds plants) (Monocotyledon- Dicotyledon).

BIY 409 CRYPTOGAMIC BOTANY II (2 0 2) 2

Introductıon, Morphology of reproductive structures of Lichens, Morphology of thallus, Ecology and succession, Air pollution and Lichens, Economic uses and applications, As food, Medical uses, General structures of Ferns, Morphology of reproductive structures, Ecological distrubutions, Gametophyte, AntheridiumAntheridia, Sporophyte, sorus and spores.Taxonomy and idenfication of  Peltigera sp, Usnea sp., Byroria fuscescens, Pseudovernia furfurecea, Cladonia pyxidata, Lobaria pulmonaria, Cetraria ıslandica, Evernia prunastri.,  , Equisetum ramasissimum, Dryopteris filix-mas, Adianthum capillus-veneris, Pteridium aquilinum, Polypodium vulgare, Ceterach officinarum.

 

BIY 410 PLANT GROWHT AND DEVELOPMENT PYSIOLOGY (2 0 0) 2

Cell division, growth and differentiation, Vejetative  growth and development, Reproductive growth and development, Plant growth regulators, auxin, cytokinin, gibberellin, etilen, abscisic acid., Plant growth regulators occurence, and distribution of growth regulators in plants, General physiological roles and application  in agriculture, Germination, Dormancy, Apical dominance and   polarity, Photoperiodism and phytochrome, Photomorphogenesis, Vernalization  and cold tolerance, Senescence and abscission, Movement Physiology

 

BIY 411 ECONOMICAL PLANTS (2 0 0) 2

The importance and nature of plant products, Relationship between economical and cultivated plants, Food plants: Algae and Fungi, Food plants: Cereals and Legumes, Food plants: Vegetables and fruits, Food plants: Oil plants, Industrial plants: Fiber plants, Industrial plants: Forest plants and products, Industrial plants: Tanning and dye materials, Industrial plants: Rubber, gums and resins, Industrial plants: Fatty oils and waxes, Industrial plants: Sugars, starches and cellulose products, Spices, Beverage plants

BIY 412 SEED PLANTS (PHANEROGAMES) II (2 2 0) 3

Subdivision of Angiospermae, General characteristics, primitive and advanced characters, paleobotanic of Angiosperms, theories about ancestors of Angiospermae, origin of Angiospermae, classification of Angiospermae. General characteristics of Dicotyledonae, subclass Apetale; Amentiflorae, Fagaceae, Betulaceae, Corylaceae, Hermaphrodite Apetale series; Caryophyllaceae, Dialypetale subclass; Ranunculaceae, Cruciferae, Rosaceae, Leguminosae, Umbelliferae, Compositae, Scrophulariaceae, Labiatae, general characteristics of Monocotyledonal subclass, Helobiales, Arales, Poales (Poaceae), Liliales (Liliaceae), Orchidales (Orchidaceae). Structure of Angiosperm flovers and floresans, Ovary and type of plasentation, diagram of flower, structure and type of fruit,  keys of family description.

BIY 413 SOIL MICROBIOLOGY (2 0 0) 2

The introduction of soil microbiology, Soil ecosystem, Soil structure and texture, Soil profile, Environmental factors to effect on soil ecosystem, Classification of soil microorganisms, Prokaryotic microorganisms, Archae bacteria and eubacteria, Fungi, Algae and lichens, Protozoa, Soil metazoans, Soil metazoans, Soil metazoans .Various microbial activities in the soils.

BIY 415 CLIMATOGY (2 0 0) 2

Bioclimate concept. Plant bioclimate, microclimate, animal and human bioclimate, agricultural climate. Point of view of biologist to climate. Verticular structure of atmosphere and radiation events.  Temperature and continentality in climate (precipitation, temperature and global continentality and adaptation on Turkey. Atmospheric moisture and precipitation (evaporation, transpiration, importance and measure  of relative moisture, type of precipitation events, precipitation regime). Atmospheric pressure, winds and their shaping effect. Classification of the world’s climate.  Different climate classification and adaptation onTurkey. Köppen and de Martonne methods and adaptation onTurkey. Methods of Gaussen and Emberger and adaptation onTurkey.

BIY 417 ENVIRONMENT POLLUTION (2 0 0) 2

Definition of environmental pollution, its classification  and historical progression (from discover of fire to discover of agriculture and industrial revolution). Demographic history of human. Atmospheric pollution, solid, liquid and gaseous pollutants. Acid rains. Effects of atmospheric pollutions on plant, animal and human. Global warming and climate change. Thinning of ozone layer and its effects.  Effects of atmospheric pollutions on ecosystem. Soil pollution and its ecological effects. Erosion and desertification. Water pollution (biological, thermic and chemical water pollution). Radioactive pollution. Vibration and light pollution. Destruction of biosphere and degradetation of natural balance.

BIY 418 PLANKTONOLOGY (2 0 2) 3

Histrorical evolution of Planktonology, classification of plankton, collection, determination and biomass of plankton, phytoplankton, general characteristics of phytoplanktonic organisms, zooplankton, general characteristics of zooplanktonic organisms, systematics of zooplankton, Protozoa, Coelanterata, Ctenophora, Chaetognatha, Annelida, Rotifera, Arthropoda, Mollusca, other planktonic larvaes, ecology of plankton, the effect of abiotic and biotic parameters on plankton, plankton abundance and biomass, productivity, indirect and direct methods, cultures of plankton, cultures of  phytoplankton, preparation of culture media, types of culture, techniques of culture, cultures of zooplankton, Rotifera, Artemia and      Daphnia cultures.

BIY 419 MARINE BIOLOGY (2 0 2) 3

Histrorical evolution of Marine Biology, definition of sea and ocean, general characteristic of sea and ocean, formation of sea and ocean, sedimentation, sources of sedimentation, classifications of various characters of the sea, the effects of water  movements on aquatic organisms, the effects on aquatic organisms and dissolved gases in the sea water, substratum and the effects on aquatic organisms and substratum, ecological classification of marine organisms, the effects on aquatic organisms and ecological parameters in the sea, bioluminesans and bio-acustic, systematics and the living organisms in the sea, biological characteristics of the living organisms in the sea.

 

BIY 420 ANIMAL ECOLOGY (2 0 2) 3

Ecosytems, and numerical expressions of biodiversity in an ecosystem. The formulas for measuring ecosystem similarities, and related applications. Sampling and counting methods and their applications. How to use a map for animal ecology. The hibernation in cold and warm blood animals. Plant defence mechanism against to herbivory effect. Population analysis, preparation of life tables, and related applications. The feeding habits of animals. Biological properties of wild animals, laboratory welfare, breeding in laboratory and their applications; Snail breeding, silkworm breeding, apiculture, reptile feeding, ecological and biological peculiarities of sea turtle (Caretta caretta), the aquarium preparation techniques, pheasant and partridge breedings, hamster care and breeding. Ecosytem management, and the control methods for pest – vector; mosquito control, house fly control and rodent control.

 

 

 BIY 421 VEGETATION ECOLOGY (2 0 2) 3

Theory: Origin of vegetation and its development, Fundamental informations about the vegetation researches, Environment and station, Classification of vegetation and its categories, Plant association and general characteristics, Formations and biological types, Synthetic characteristics of vegetation, Analytical characteristics of vegetation, Succession and climax, Systematics of Phytosociology and nomenclature, Various approaches on vegetation researches, Sampling and its problems, Homogenity and frequency diagrams, Sociological units defined in Turkey

Practical: Purpose of vegetation researches, “Minimal area” techniques and sampling, Quadrat types; List, basal area, Cutting, Mapping, Nudation, enclosure and exlosure areas, Plotless sampling techniques, Braun-Blanquet’s method, Tabulation techniques, Formation of the syntaxonomic categories and nomenclature samples, Line-intercept, point-intercept methods, Transect ve Bisect methots, Winsconsin Polar Ordination techniques, Matrix method, Gounot statistical method, Godron statistical

BIY 422 PLANT ECOLOGY (2 0 2) 3

Environmental factors and their relations with plants. Effect of lights on plants. Effects of temperature on plants. Ecological importance of the water for plants.   Biotic factors; symbiosis, ammensalism, mutualism, mycorhiza and mycotrophi, allelopathy.  Defence systems and phytoalexines in  plants.   Major biomes of the world. Succession and climax.  Ecology of the arctic and alpine plants. Stress factors and defence strategies of plants against stress factors.  Ecology of halophytes.  Phenotypic plasticity in plants. Reproduction power and victim.

 

BIY 423 ECOPHYSIOLOGY (2 0 0) 2

Photosynthetically active radiation, Photomorphologically active radiation, Effects of UV in plants, Low temperature stress, Metabolic substances with  related hardiness, High  temperature stress, Physicochemical  properties of water, Transpiration, Effect of water deficiency on photosynthesis, Moisture stress, Salinity stress, Oxygen deficiency, Heavy metal stress, Air pollutants

 

BIY 424 RADIOBIOLOGY (2 0 2) 3

Definition, aim and importance of  Radiobiology. Radioactivity, variety and feature of radiation, Photoelectric,Compton, formation of pair. Free radicals, units of dose , speaces, biological dispersion and half of life-span of radiation.  Radiation effects on levels of molecules, organells, cells, organs, and organisms. Radiation sensivity of variety stage of cell cycle.  Acut effect of radiation on organism. Radiation effects on genetical alteration, development of embrio and fetus, karsinogenic, formation of cataract,  aplastic anaemia and decrease of life.

BIY 425 WILDLIFE (2 0 0) 2

What is wildlife? Wildlife management. Ecosystems and communites. Population Animal behaviour and wildlife management. Feeding and cover; food, digestive system of mammals and birds, evolution and ecology of feeding behaviour, quality and quantity of food, food management, edge and its effect. Wildlife diseases; diseases and habitat, diseases and populations, diseases and biological control, wildlife diseases and humans. Predation in wildlife, relation of predator and prey.  Water and wildlife; some characters of waters, effects of water on wildlife, dispersal of water in the world, water and wildlife populations, water managements, acid rains. Wildlife and soil; some characters of soil, effects of soil, tropical soils, desertification, effects of wildlife on soil. Wildlife and farm; developmental history of farm, farm products as wildlife food searches, erosion, sedimentation and wildlife, farm drugs and wildlife, some kinds of insecticide, herbicides, fertilizers.Forestmanagements and wildlife; some fundamental aspects of forest management, forest cutting and wildlife, forest fires and wildlife. National parks; utilisation by visiters national park, hunting in parks, over reproduction of animals in national parks. Endangered wildlife, management of endangered species. Economical wildlife. Wildlife conservation and wildlife management.

 

BIY 426 ECOSYSTEM AND POPULATION DYNAMICS (2 0 0) 2

Definition of Ecosystem and its components. Functional characteristics  of ecosystems; Ecosystems of terrestrial, marine and fresh water; structural characteristics of animal populations. Methods using in determining population density, their distribution state, their growing up forms; the factors which pertinent and not pertinent with animal population density, age structure of population; life table; fluctuations in the population.

BIY 428 FRESHWATER ECOLOGY (2 2 0) 3   

Introduction. Histrorical evolution of frehwater ecology. Properties of water. Evolution of lakes. Morphometry of lakes.Lakeparameters. Origin of lakes. Tectonically formed lakes. Volkanically formed lakes. Glacially formed lakes. Karstic lakes. Alüvional dam lakes and lagunes. Zonation. Light. Turbidity. Temperatüre. Thermal classification of lakes. Water movement. Oxygen. Types of oxygen-depth curves.  Carbondioxide. Effects of oxygen and carbon dioxide. Nitrogen. The nitrogen cycle. Phosphorus. The phosphorus cycle. Organisms in lakes. Phytoplankton. Zooplankton. Neuston. Nekton. Benthic organisms. Biologically classification of lakes. Food-Chain dynamics

 

BIY 429 BASIC TECHNIQUES IN MOLECULAR BIOLOGY (2 2 0) 3

Theoretical: Elution of Nucleic acids and proteins, Techniques used for their purifications, I-Electrophoresis, II-Chromatography, III-Centrifugation, Blotting (transfer)  techniques -1, Midterm, Blotting (transfer)  techniques -2, Recombinant DNA techniques -1, Recombinant, DNA techniques -2, DNA amplification by PCR, Hybridization techniques, DNA sequence analysis (Sanger method), DNA sequence analysis (Maxam-Gilbert method)

Practical: Total DNA isolation, RNA isolation, Plasmid isolation, Agorose Jel Electrophoresis, Isolation of proteins, Preparation of polyacrylamide gels, Molecular weight determinations of DNA and proteins, Midterm, SDS-PAGE, Southern and Western Blotting (theoretical) PCR, Analysis of blots (theoretical), DNA sequence analysis (theoretical), DNA Hybridisation (theoretical)

BIY 430 NATURAL PROTECTED AREAS (2 0 0) 2

History of Nature Conservation, Scientific Reserves, National Parks, Nature Monuments, Nature Protection Reserves, Landscape Protection Areas, Antropological Reserves, Wildlife Protection Areas, Biosphere reserves, World Heritage Areas, Economis, Scientific and Esthetic Uses of Nature Conservation,  Criterias of Nature Protection, Specially Protected Areas and their problems , Economic and Ecological importance of Nature Protection.

BIY 431 MEDICAL MICROBIOLOGY (2 0 2) 3

Normal microflora of human body, Importance of normal microflora, İnfections ant toxins, Airborne bacterial diseases, Airborne viral diseases, Sexually transmitted diseases, Animal and insect transmitted diseases, Foodborne diseases, Waterborne diseases, Epidemiology, Immunology and vaccination, Molecular techniques in Medical Microbiology, Culture media and properties, Bacteril examination of water, Bacteril examination of milk, Examination of normal microflora of body, Examination of pathogen microflora of body, Identification of pathogens, Throat swab culture, Identification of throat culture, Antibiotic susceptibility test of pathogens, Identification of an unknown pathogen

 

BIY 433 PLANT CELL AND TISSUE CULTURE (2 0 0) 2

Plant Tissue Culture, Variation at plant, Totipotence, Meristems, Laboratory of Plant Tissue Culture , Chemicals in  Plant Tissue Culture Media, Effects of them, Their characteristics, Contents of Media, A simple media  can prepared at home, MS (Murashige ve Skoog 1962) media and prepared, Sterilization, Transfer procedures and incubation, Plant regeneration, Embryogenesis, Organogenesis, Culture of plant cell and plant tissue at bioreactor, Anther and Pollen Culture, Plant Protoplast Culture, Problems and Limitations, Cryopreservation and germplasm

 

BIY 435 ENZYMOLOGY (2 0 0)  2

General information about enzymes; enzyme nomenclature; enzyme units; The mechanism of enzyme action; Simple kinetic of enzyme action; Effect of pH and ionic strength on enzyme catalysis; Effect of temperature and pressure; Reversible reactions; Enzyme inhibition; Determination of Vmax and Km; Catalytic mechanisms of enzymes; Proteolytic enzymes; Carboxypeptidase, serine proteases, tyripsin, elastase, thiol proteases, acid  proteases; Endustrial enzymes and their uses.

 

BIY 438 PROKARYOTES (2 0 0) 2

Microbial evolution, Molecular phylogeny of living organisms, Proteobacteria, Gram-positive bacteria, Other bacterial phyla, Archaea:Euryarchaeota, Crenarchaeota, Archaea:Adaptation to extreme conditions

BIY 440 MICROBIAL BIOTECHNOLOGY (2 0 0) 2

Properties of industrial microorganisms, Primer and seconder microbial  metabolites, Fermentation and scale-up, Isolation of antibiotic producing microorganisms, Industrial production of penicillines and tetcyclines, Industrial production of vitamins and amino acids, Industrial production of enzymes and biotransformation, Industrial production of Vinegar, Citric acid and other organic acids, Yeasts and their industrial importance, Production of beer and vine, Production of distilled beverages, The use of microorganisms in wastewater treatment, Production of mushroom

 

BIY 441 IMMUNOBIOLOGY (2 2 0) 3

Basic principles of immunobiyology,  Types of immune reaction. Natural and acquired immunity. Tissues and cells of immune system. Structure and function of antigens and antibodies, relationship of antigen and antibody.  Major Histocompatibility Complexes. Activation of B and T cells,  receptor of T cell. Migration of cells and Inflamation. Humoral and cellular immunity, Cytokines, Complement complex system, Immunity of organism against  various  organisms (such as bacteria, vruses and parasites). Hipersensitive reactions (Allergy). Regulation of immune reaction, vaccines, otoimmunity, Transplantation of tissue, tumor antigens.

 

BIY 442 PLANT BIOTECHNOLOGY (2 0 0) 2

Importance of plants, Genetic material in plant cell, Protein synthesis, Synthesis of Ribosomal RNA and formation of ribosome, Expression of nucleus genes, Cloning steps of plant genes, Obtain of mRNA and its assay, cDNA synthesis, Cloning of genomic sequences, Analysis of cloned genes, Expression of cloned genes, Gene cloning vectors in plants; plasmids, bacteriophage l, Microinjection, DNA gun (gene gun), electroporation, Application of gene cloning in agricultural and industrial area

BIY 445 ANIMAL EMBRYOLOGY (2 0 2) 3

Introduction to embryology. Reproduction of organizms and type of reproduction. Structure and development  stages of reproduction organs of male and female. Formation of  sex cells (Gametogenesis: Spermatogenesis, and oogenesis). Sex cells (sperm and oosit) and type of sex cells. Pregnancy of organisms, types of pregnancy and  periods of pregnancy.  Birth  type of  babies of organisms. Embryonal stages (Blastulation , gastrulation  and norulation) of organisms (amphioxus,  amphibians, fishes, birds and mammalia). Stages of development from zigot to birth of human.

 

BIY 446 MAMMALOGY (2 0 0) 2

Methods and techniques for studying mammals; trapping and marking, monitoring, observational methods, genetics and molecular techniques. Evolution and dental characteristics of mammals. Integument, support, and movement, muscles. Modes of feeding; insectivorous, carnivorous, herbivorous, and ommivorous. Biological rhythims. Environmental adaptations; temperature regulation, adaptation to cold, avoidance of cold, resistance to cold, were economy, dormancy, and avoidance of high temperature. Reproduction; male and female reproductive systems, gestation and parturition, reproductive variations; delayed fertilization, delayed development, delayed implantation, embryonic diapause. Adaptive radiation and diversity of mammals. Characters of subgroups of monotremes and marsupials, and plasentals. Sexual selection, parental care, and mating systems. Social behaviour, and grouping living. Dispersal, habitat selection and migration, community ecologecological zoogeography of mammals. Parasites and diseases of mammals. Domestication of mammals and domesticated mammals. Conservation of mammals

 

BIY 447 ANIMAL BEHAVIOR (2 0 0) 2

Scientist supplemented to Behavior science, introduction of methods used in Behavioral science, brief historical account of Behavior science  ;definition of  Behavior science and its formation stages; Behaviors coming from birth; memorys role in the Behaviors had been learn; Behaviors had been learn; some Behavior states in animals; communication in animals; definition and characteristics of Social behaviors; introduction of social insects and their nest building; defending and informing of nourishment source to the nest that is available in social insects ; behavior as to Evolution.

 

 

BIY 448 MOLECULAR BIOLOGY OF DIFFERENTIATION (2 0 0) 2

Animal development; indirect and direct development, cleavage, morula, blastula, gastrula, early and late embryonic development, placenta, Differential gene expression; determination, transdetermination, totipotens, the role of cytoplasmic segration and induction, development potential, cloning a mammal, the role of pattern formation in organ development, apoptosis, organ identity genes, morphogens and positional information, homeotic (homeobox-containing) genes, homeotic mutations, transcriptional regulation of gene expression; exons and introns, promoter structure and function, enhancer structure and function, transcription factors (homeodomain and POU protein families), transcription factors (helix-loop-helix, zinc finger, leucine zipper motifs)

BIY 449 GENERAL ENDOCRINOLOGY (2 0 0) 2

An overview of the endocrine system, Hormon structure and classification (peptide hormones, amino acid derivatives, steroid hormones), Hormone function and mechanisms of action, Control of endocrine activity, endocrine reflekxes, The pituitary gland (anterior and posterior pituitary) and its hormones, The thyroid gland and its hormones (thyroxine, triiodothyronine, calcitonin), Parathyroid glands (parathormone), The thymus and  thymosines, The adrenal glands (adrenal cortex and adrenal medullae) and its hormones (glucocorticoids, mineralocorticoids, androgens, epinephrine, norepinephrine), The kidneys and its hormones (Calcitriol, erythropoietin, renin), The pineal gland and melatonin, the heart and atrial natriuretic peptide, Endocrine tissues of the digestive system, pancreas and its hormones (insulin, glucagon), Diabetes mellitus, Sex hormones (androgens, estrogens, progestins), Endocrine malfunctions, Patterns of hormonal interaction (growth, stress, behavior and aging).

 

BIY 450 FOOD MICROBIOLOGY (2 2 0) 3

Theoretical: Characteristics of microorganisms in food, Microbial growth in food, Beneficial uses of microorganisms in food, Biochemistry and genetics of some beneficial traits, Microbial food spoilage, Indicators of microbial food spoilage, Midterm, Microbial food borne disease, Opportunistic pathogens, Indicators of bacterial pathogens, Control of microorganisms in food, I-Control by physical removal, heat and low temp., II-Control by low pH, organic acids and irradiation, III-Control by Antimicrobial Preservatives

Practical: Media used for isolation of food-grade bacteria and their properties, Bacteriological investigation of foods-1, Bacteriological investigation of foods -2, Pour plate techniques-1, Pour plate techniques -2, Detection of viable organisms in food, Midterm, Selection of media for bacteria type, Isolation of LAB from foods, Identification of isolated LAB, Isolation of microorganisms associated with food spoilage-1, Their identification and characterization-2 , Isolation of microorganisms associated with food related health hazards, Identification of un-known food-grade bacteria

 

BIY 451 ANIMAL GEOGRAPHY (2 0 0) 2

Definition of Zoogeography, its brief historical account; views related to continents location, glacial periods and fauna characters at this periods (important formation  of terrestrial relationship), primitive ages vertebrates and their Phylogenetic arrangement,Ecologic factors effecting animal popularity;effective rules in animal popularity;Zoogeographic zones in the world; naval zoogeography; zoogeography of Turkey.

 

BIY 455 INVERTEBRATES-II (2 0 2) 3

Theory: General concets of Phylum  Arthropoda, Similar and different characters of between Annelida and  Arthropoda , Nerve ,Nutrition -Digestion Respiration Circulation and Excretion systems of Arthropoda, Locomotion İn Arthropoda , Musical  organs Arthropoda , Reproduction and development  in Arthropoda,  Classing of Phylum  Arthropoda , Group I Proarthropoda Subphylum Onychopora , Subphylum Tardigrada , Euarthropoda, Subphylum Trilobitomorpha , Subphylum Linguatulida , Subphylum Chelicerata, Classis Merostomata, Ordo Gigantostraca, Ordo Xiphosura , Classis Arachnida , Ordo Scorpionida , Ordo Pseudoscorpionida , Ordo Palpigradi , Orda Araneida , Ordo Amblypygi , Ordo Ricinulei (Ricinuloides = Ricinoides), Ordo Uropygi , Ordo Opilionida , Ordo Solifugae , Ordo Acarina, Classis  Pentapoda (=Pycnogonida) , Subphylum Mandibulata , Subphylum Crustacea, Subclassis Branchiopoda, Subordo Cladocera, Subclassis Copepoda , Subclassis Cirripedia , Subclassis Malacostraca, Ordo Isopoda , Ordo Decapoda , Subphylum Antennata, Classis Myriapoda , Ordo Diplopoda , Ordo Chilopoda , Ordo Symphyla , Ordo Pauropoda, General concepts about Phylum Echınodermata’, Nerve ,Nutrition -Digestion Respiration Circulation and Excretion systems of Echinodermata Classing of Echinodermata by Nerve ,Nutrition -Digestion Respiration Circulation and Excretion systems Classis Asteroidea , Classis Ophiuroidea , Classis Echinoidea , Classis Holothuroidea , Classis Crinoidea .

Practical: Examing of Scorpion and Araneida samples. Examing of Ordo Araneida, Demodex follicorum ,Sarcoptes scabei samples Examing of  preserved Ixodes ricinus , Argas persicus , Daphnia pulex , Cyclops sp. Astacus leptodactylus , Cancer pagurus, Potamobius sp. ,Gammarus sp. ,Paleomon Sp., Oniscus asellus , Julus  terrestris , Scolopendra cingulata ve Scutigera coelopterata  Asterias forbesi  ,Ophiura sp., Strongylocentratus Sp.,  Holothuria Sp.  samples on formol.

 

BIY 457 CELLULAR PHYSIOLOGY (2 0 0) 2

Contents of brief in cell physiology, Signal transduction: Signalling molecules, Receptor tyrosine kinases, Signalling through G-protein coupled;  cAMP, cGMP, Ca signalling and mechanism, Signal molecules , Nitric oxide signalling, Liquid crystals , Aquaporins, Vesicular traffic in cytoplasm, Control mechanisms for mitotic events, Morphological changes in animal cell response, Nuclear actins and laminin, Inhibitory mechanisms of receptors, Apoptosis.

 

BIY 464 HISTOLOGY OF ORGAN SYSTEMS (2 2 0) 3

Histology of skin and its appendages, general histological structure of the digestive tract and its associated glands (salivary glands, liver, pancreas and gallbladder), histology of respiratory system, urinary system, circulatory system, hematopoietic and lymphoid system, skeletal and muscular system, endocrine system, nervous system, histology of brain, spinal cord and the peripheral nervous system, histology of reproductive system, disorders associated with organ systems, their etiology and pathogenesis, Investigations of histological sections obtained from the organ systems ( skin, tongue, esophagus, stomach, small and large intestines, liver, pancreas, kidney, ureter, lung, spleen, thymus, lymphatic nodule) under light microscope.

 

BIY 466 HUMAN ANATOMY (2 0 0) 2

General terms in  anatomy; anatomical position and regions of body; body cavities, Axial skeleton, Appendicular skeleton, Articulations , Anatomy of skeletal muscle: Muscle terminology; axial and appendicular muscles, Anatomy of nervous system: Brain and cranial nerves; spinal cord and nerves, Anatomy of sensory organs: Eye and orbit; organ of hearing; olfactory receptors; gustatory receptors, Anatomy of digestive system: oral cavity; pharynx; stomach: intestines (small and large); rectum, Associated organ of digestive tract:  salivary glands; liver and pancreas, Anatomy of respiratory system: upper respiratory system ( nose an nasal cavity); trachea; lung, Anatomy of cardiovascular system: heart; blood vessels; pulmonary  and systemic circulation, Anatomy of urinary system: kidneys; ureters, urethra and bladder, Anatomy of endocrine system, Anatomy of lymphatic system, cadaver.

 

BIY 468 ORNITHOLOGY (2 0 0) 2

A short history of bird studies. Classification of birds and the construction of  phylogenetic relationships among birds. Forms and functions of bird body. The flight types of birds and the structures associated to the flights. Respiratory system of birds. Circulatory system of birds, excretion system of birds, digestive system and feeding of birds, reproduction and development of birds. Brain and sense of birds. Bird conservations and demographic structure of bird populations. Principle techniques of birds breeding and keeping. Bird systematic; introduction to birds orders, and some examples to representatives of orders.

 

BIY 470 PARAZITOLOGY (2 0 2) 3

Theory: Definition of parasitology , Evolution and hosts on Parasites,  Kinds of parasitism.İnfecting of Parasites, Human  parasites, Parasite Diseases,Source of parasites  İnfection Kinds, Patogenical effects of Parasites, resistance of parasitism ,General and Clinical Syptoms of parasitical infections, Diagnosis, Epidemiology  for Turkey Prevention , General concepts of Protozoa Protozoon Infections on Human ,Diagnosis of Protozoon Diseases, Flagellate and parasitises, Flagellatas of Digestive system, Ürogenital system, Blood and Tissue, General Concepts about Helmints, Infecting kinds of Prevention and treatment for Helmints ,Laboratory diagnosis of Helmints, Protection kinds of Helmint diseases ,Helmints and Parasitises, Trematods of Liver , Trematods of Intestine , Trematods of lungs ,Nemotods of Intestine Arthropoda, Acarina and parasitises, Diptera  and  parasitises, Phthriptera parasitises, Siphonoptera, Hemiptera, Hymenoptera ,Dipteras and parasities

Practical: Examing of Giardia intestinalis, Trypanasoma gambiense  Toxoplasma gondii , Sarcocystis lindemanni,  Babesia sp. , Plasmodium sp. , Entamoeba histolytica, Entamoeba coli, Endolimax nana , Iodamoeba bütschlii preperations.Examing of preserved Fasciola haepatica ,  Dicrocoelium dendriticum Taenia solium, Taenia saginata, Dibothriocephalus latus, Hymenolepis nana, Ascaris lumbricoides , Enterebius vermicularis  ready made samples on Alcohol. Examing of Scorpionida , Aranea ,Acarina, Ixodidae , Argasidae ready made samples, Sarcoptes scabei and Demodex follicorum preparations, Blattoptera , Phthiroptera ,Siphonoptera , Hemiptera, Hymenoptera  and Diptera ready made samples.

 

BIY 472 ENTOMOLOGY (2 0 2) 3

Theory: Systematic about insects , general concepts about Insects and outhern morphology Outhern insect morphology Cuticule, Epidermis Hypodermis Basal Membran, extended sections   Color Body parts ,Head , Antenna  Types,Mouth and types, Leg Types ,Wing types, intern physyology , Digestion, Nutrition , Respiration, Excretion, Blood and circulation, Sensitivity , The sound and light producing organs , Reproduction and development, Classification Classis Insecta, Subclassis Apterygota, Ordo Thysanura , Ordo Diplura,Ordo Protura, Ordo Collembola Subclassis Pterygota , Ordo Ephemeroptera ,Ordo Odonata , Ordo Coleoptera ,Ordo Orthoptera , Ordo Hemiptera (Heteroptera) Ordo Phthriptera , Ordo Diptera Ordo Hymenoptera, Ordo Lepidoptera, Ordo Homoptera , Ordo Balattoptera, Ordo Mantodea, Ordo Phasmida

Practical: Examing of general body parts from an Insect sample. Examing of antenna  types  , mouth types,Leg types,wing types ,stern and larva samples and preperations.Examing of Insect systems from samples,Collecting and Preparing to Museum materials.

 

BIY 473 CELL RECEPTORS (2 0 0) 2

The structural and functional characteristics of receptors, the classification of receptors, cell surface receptors, endocytotic pathway and intracellular movement, classification of ligands, receptor-ligand interactions and signal tranduction mechanism, intracellular membrane receptors, nuclear receptors, molecular mechanism of signalling by nuclear receptors, receptor regulation, disorders linked to receptors, recent methodological advances.

 

BIY 475 PATHOBIOLOGY (2 2 0) 3

Cell and tissue damage mechanisms, stress proteins, necrosis and apoptosis, endogenous and exogenous superantigens, cytotoxic cells, natural killer cells, perforin-dependent and perforin-independent lymphocyte-mediated cytolysis mechanism, immunoadhesins, angiogenesis,  role of angiogenesis of pathobiology, repair mechanisms and  new approaches in which stem cells are utilized., Comparative investigation of normal and pathological tissues in light microscopy.

 

BIY 478 CANCER CELL (2 0 2) 3

Neoplasm, its definition, classification and epidemiology, characteristics of benign and malign neoplasms, tumor suppressing genes, oncogenes, determination of cellular oncogenes, products of oncogenes, oncogenic mechanisms influencing the cells, carcinogenesis mechanisms, tumor spreading mechanisms, karyotypical changes in tumors, tumor angiogenesis, cancer cachexia, cancer phases and grading, anti-tumor efficient mechanisms, paraneoplastic syndromes, tumor antigens, tumor immunology, immun escape mechanisms, immune system neoplasms, cancer diagnosis methods, immunological phenotypes, prevalent cancer types, cancer treatment methods and latest developments, Comparative investigation of normal and cancerous tissue sections under the light microscope.

 

BIY 480 ADHESION MOLECULES (2 0 0) 2

The structure, function and classification of adhesion molecules, adhesion molecules belonging to immunoglobulin superfamily, integrins, selectins, mucin-like adhesion molecules, calcium dependent adhesion molecules (cadherins),  adhesion receptors of the immune system, adhesion molecules in wound healing, leukocyte migration, inflammation, mechanism of leukocyte migration, control of leukocyte adhesion, leukocyte adhesion disorder, regulation od adhesion molecules.

BIY 481 VIROLOGY (2 0 0) 2

Introduction, General properties of viruses, Methods in virology, RNA viruses, Viruses using reverse transcriptase, DNA viruses, Viruslike infectious agents, Transformation by DNA and RNA viruses, Immunization against viruses, Interferons, Viruses as tools in medicine and biotechnology.

BIY 482 ENVIRONMENTAL MICROBIOLOGY (2 0 2) 3

Historical development, Microbial evolution, Interactions among microbial populations, Interactions between microorganisms and plants, Microbial interactions with animals, Microbial adaptations to environmental conditions, Microbial habitats, Biogeochemical cycling, Biologic waste management, Microoganisms in mineral and energy recovery, Fuel and biomass production, Microbial interactions with xenobiotic and inorganic pollutants, Microbial control of pests.

BIY 483 ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT (2 0 0) 2

Introduction and history of the EIA. EIA approach on the solving environmental problems and its application to the environmental problems of the world. EIA and elimination criteria. National and international agreement and non governmental organizations for   solving the environmental problems. Process and rank of the EIA. EIA methods; adaptive, control list, system diagram methods. Criteria of the EIA process. IUCN red data book criteria. Endemic, rare and threatened flora and fauna species and it’s in the importance   EIA process.

 

BIY 483 ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT (2 0 2) 3

History and definition of Environmental Impact Assessment. Introduction to EIA, the list of facilities for EIA reports. The format for EIA report. Following procedures for preparation of EIA report. The examinations of EIA report prepared. The orders of EIA procedures inTurkey. Floristic and faunistic analyses. The measurements for reducing hazardous effects of the facilities. Lethal doses for fauna in terms of Turkish regulations. The ex-situ and in-situ measurements for protection of flora. IUCN categories, and a brief introduction to Turkish fauna and flora.

 

BIY 484 DROUGHT PHYSIOLOGY (2 0 2) 3

Atmosphere and properties, climate and its parameters, climate change and drought,  basic properties of dry and semi-dry regions, natural and andropogenic factors in the development of dry climate, erosion and desertification, natural deserts and andropogenic desertification, the factors involved, desert soils and properties of its biota, desert vegetation and physiological properties, interrelationships between desert vegetation and soils, physiological interrelationships between desertification and the vegetation, erosion and vegetation, factors in desertification process and their mechanisms, effects of pollution on desertification, acceleration factors in desertification, techniques used in the assessment of  drying process and intensity of its effects, methods and techniques used in the assessment of  these processes, and mitigation, restoration.

BIY 486 URBAN ECOLOGY (2 2 0) 3

Theory: Introduction, artificial and natural ecosystems, Urbanization and urban foot prints, Disturbance in urban areas, distribution of species, habitat diversity, Vegetation dynamics in cities, Urban fauna, Urban climate and air pollution, Soils in urban areas, Urban commons, Industrial areas, Railways and roads, City centers and parks, Water mains and reservoirs, Environmental pollutions in urban areas, Allotments, leisure gardens, cemeteries

Practical: Explanation of urban media, Urban flora, Urban fauna; Invertabrates, Urban fauna; Vertebrates, Visit to Pollution analysis units in Institute of Conservation of Health, Visit to urban units in Ministry of Environment, Visit to Directory of Provincial Health in Ankara, City parks, cemeteries, Wetland areas around city, Effects of traffic stress on street plants, Measurement of exhaust emmissions, Industrial areas in cities, Municipal urban affairs, Visit to ASKİ treatment plant

BIY 488 AQUATIC TOXICOLOGY (2 0 0) 2

Historical introduction and Ecological Fundamentals of Toxicology, Distribution of inorganic chemicals in the environment, Classification of Chlorinated organics, Bioaccumulation of chemicals by aquatic organisms, Ecological Risks of Pesticides, Eutrophication problems, Controlling and solving eutrophication problems, Community interactions and eutrophication, Acidification (Acid rains) and impact on the aquatic organisms, Thermal pollution, Radioactivity pollution, Oil pollution.

BIY 489 PLANT CHEMOTAXONOMY (2 0 2) 3

 

Taxonomy and systematics, and their relations, the relations of the basic classification principles with the chemical, biochemical and molecular differences of the objects to be classified, the assessment of the products of secondary metabolism in the classification processes, classical classification procedures and the techniques used in verification, falsification. The analytical methods used in verification and falsefication of the results held by classical of taxonomical and systematical approaches, such as chemical, molecular, and evolutionary assessments, techniques used in chemotaxonomy for economical secondary metabolite research studies.

BIY 490 ICHTHYOLOGY (2 2 0) 3

Introduction and history of ichthyology, Fish classification, Structure and form of fish, Respiration System, Blood and its circulation, Buoyancy and Thermal Regulation, Digestive System and Absorption, Excretion System and Nutrition, Growth and Factors Affecting Growth, Reproductive System and Breeding Behaviour, Alternative Reproductive Strategies, Sensory Organs and System, Migratory Behaviour and Communication.

 

BIY 492 HERPETOLOGY (2 0 0) 2

Origin of Amphibia. Ampibian body structure, digestive system and feeding. Amphibian respriratory, circulatory, excretory and nervus systems. Reproduction and development. Sytemetic and phylogeny of Amphibia. Species diversity, identification and ecological peculiarities of Turkish amphibian. Origin of Reptile. Reptilian body structure, digestive system and feeding. Reptilian respriratory, circulatory, excretory and nervus systems. Reproduction and development. Sytemetic and phylogeny of Reptile. Species diversity, identification and ecological peculiarities of Turkish reptile.

 

BIY 493 FISH CULTURE (2 2 0) 3

History of Fish Culture, Economic importance of fish culture, Trout production, Techniques for artificial production of trout fish, Trout species and biological characteristics of water used in trout rearing, characteristics of ponds of  trout rearing, methods of transportation and stocking, trout nutrition and basic elements, Topografic location of study area, biological characteristics of carp, pond used in carp rearing, characteristics of water used in carp rearing, culture of dorso-ventral fishes.

 

BIY 494 ECOSYSTEM MANAGEMANT (2 0 0) 2

Ecosystem and ecosystem management concept.  Ecology and Economy relations. Principles of sustainable usage.  Selecting of favorable area and gap analysis at the ecesystem management. Ecologic restoration, plans, zones and figures of ecological conservation areas. Priority criteria of the areas and species at ecosystem management.  Biyotop mappin and usage of Remote Sensing System (RSS) and Geographic Information System (GIS) at the ecosystem manegement.   Integral ecosystem management.

 

BIY 495 GENETIC ENGINEERING (2 0 0) 2

Description and hystorical evolution of genetic engineering, DNA and RNA isolation, restriction endonucleases and other enzymes using in genetic engineering, construction of genetic maps, vector systems, construction and selection of molecular clones, designation of DNA, RNA and protein probes, construction of DNA libraries and gene banks, site directed mutation techniques, principles of polymerase chain reactions (PCR), DNA sequencing, legal and ethic issues of genetic engineering.